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Chapter 18, MedTerms

The Sensory System

equilibrium The sense of balance
gustation The sense of taste (Latin geusis means "taste")
hearing The sense or perception of sound
olfaction The sense of smell (root osm/o means "smell")
proprioception The awareness of posture, movement, and changes in equilibrium; receptors are located in muscles, tendons, and joints
sensory receptor A sensory nerve ending or a specialized structure associated with a sensory nerve that responds to a stimulus
tactile Pertaining to the sense of touch
vision The sense by which the shape, size, and color of objects are perceived by means of the light they give off
-esthesia sensation
-algesia pain
-osmia sense of smell
-geusia sense of taste
auditory tube The tube that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and serves to equalize pressure between the outer and middle ear (root: salping/o); pharyngotympanic tube; originally called the eustachian tube
cerumen The brownish, wax-like secretion formed in the external ear canal to protect the ear and prevent infection (adjective: ceruminous)
cochlea The coiled portion of the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing (root: cochle/o)
external auditory canal Tube that extends from the pinna of the ear to the tympanic membrane; eternal auditory meatus
incus The middle ossicle of the ear
labyrinth The inner ear, named for its complex structure, which resembles a maze
malleus The ossicle of the middle ear that is in contact with the tympanic membrane and the incus
ossicles The small bones of the middle ear; the malleus, incus, and stapes
pinna The projecting part of the outer ear; auricle
semicircular canals The three curved channels of the inner ear that hold receptors for equilibrium
spiral organ The hearing receptor, which is located in the cochlea of the inner ear; organ of Corti
stapes The ossicle that is in contact with the inner ear (roots: staped/o, stapedi/o)
tympanic membrane The membrane between the external auditory canal and the middle ear (tympanic cavity); the eardrum; it serves to transmit sound waves to the ossicles of the middle ear (roots: myring/o, tympan/o)
vestibular apparatus The portion of the inner ear that is concerned with the sense of equilibrium; it consists of the vestibule and the semicircular canals (root: vestibul/o)
vestibule The chamber in the inner ear that holds some of the receptors for equilibrium
vestibulocochlear nerve The nerve that transmits impulses for hearing and equilibrium from the ear to the brain; eighth cranial nerve; auditory or acoustic nerve
audi/o hearing
acous, acus, cus sound, hearing
ot/o ear
myring/o tympanic membrane
tympan/o tympanic cavity (middle ear), tympanic membrane
salping/o tube, auditory tube
staped/o, stapedi/o stapes
labyrinth/o labyrinth (inner ear)
vestibul/o vestibule, vestibular apparatus
cochle/o cochlea (of inner ear)
acoustic neuroma A tumor of the eighth cranial nerve sheath; although benign, it can press on surrounding tissue and produce symptoms; also called an acoustic or vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neurilemmoma
conductive hearing loss Hearing impairment that results from blockage of sound transmission to the inner ear
Ménière disease A disease associated with increased fluid pressure in the inner ear and characterized by hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus
otitis externa Inflammation of the external auditory canal; swimmer's ear
otitis media Inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of serious (watery) or mucoid fluid
otosclerosis Formation of abnormal and sometimes hardened bony tissue in the ear; it usually occurs around the oval window and the footplate (base) of the stapes, causing immobilization of the stapes and progressive hearing loss
sensorineural hearing loss Hearing impairment that results from damage to the inner ear, eighth cranial nerve, or auditory pathways in the brain
tinnitus A sensation of noises, such as ringing or tinkling, in the ear
vertigo An illusion of movement, as of the body moving in space or the environment moving about the body; usually caused by disturbances in the vestibular apparatus; used loosely to mean dizziness or lightheadedness
myringotomy Surgical incision of the tympanic membrane; performed to drain the middle ear cavity or to insert a tube into the tympanic membrane for drainage
stapedectomy Surgical removal of the stapes; it may be combined with insertion of a prosthesis to correct otosclerosis
aural Pertaining to or perceived by the ear
decibel (dB) A unit for measuring the relative intensity of sound
hertz (Hz) A unit for measuring the frequency (pitch) of sound
mastoid process A small projection of the temporal bone behind the external auditory canal; it consists of loosely arranged bony material and small, air-filled cavities
stapedius A small muscle attached to the stapes; it contracts in the presence of a loud sound, producing the acoustic reflex
cholesteatoma A cyst-like mass containing cholesterol that is most common in the middle ear and mastoid region; a possible complication of chronic middle ear infection
labyrinthitis Inflammation of the ear's labyrinth (inner ear); otitis interna
mastoiditis Inflammation of the air cells of the mastoid process
presbycusis Loss of hearing caused by aging presbyacusis
audiometry Measurement of hearing
electronystagmography (ENG) A method for recording eye movements by means of electrical responses; such movements may reflect vestibular dysfunction
otorhinolaryngology (ORL) The branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the ear(s), nose, and throat (ENT); also called otolaryngology (OL)
otoscope Instrument for examining the ear
Rinne test Test that measures hearing by comparing results of bone conduction and air conduction; bone conduction is tested through the mastoid process behind the ear
spondee A two-syllable word with equal stress on each syllable; used in hearing tests; examples are toothbrush, baseball, cowboy, pancake
Weber test Test for hearing loss that uses a vibrating tuning fork placed at the center of the head
ABR Auditory brainstem response
AC Air conduction
BAEP Brainstem auditory evoked potentials
BC Bone conduction
dB Decibel
ENG Electronystagmography
ENT Ear(s), nose, and throat
HL Hearing level
Hz Hertz
OL Otolaryngology
OM Otitis media
ORL Otorhinolaryngology
ST Speech threshold
TM Tympanic membrane
TTS Temporary threshold shift
accommodation Adjustment of the lens's curvature to allow for vision at various distances
aqueous humor Fluid that fills the eye anterior to the lens
choroid The dark, vascular, middle layer of the eye (roots: chori/o, choroid/o); part of the uvea
ciliary body The muscular portion of the uvea that surrounds the lens and adjusts its shape for near and far vision (root: cycl/o)
cone A specialized cell in the retina that responds to light; cones have high visual acuity, function in bright light, and respond to colors
conjunctiva The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the eyeball's anterior surface
convergence Coordinated movement of the eyes toward fixation on the same point
cornea The clear, anterior portion of the sclera (roots: corne/o, kerat/o)
fovea The tiny depression in the retina that is the point of sharpest vision; fovea centralis, central
iris The muscular colored ring between the lens and the cornea; regulates the amount of light that enters the eye by altering the size of the pupil at its center (roots: ir, irid/o, irit/o) (plural: irides)
lacrimal gland A gland above the eye that produces tears (roots: lacrim/o, dacry/o)
lens The transparent, biconvex structure in the anterior portion of the eye that refracts light and functions in accommodation (roots: lent/i, phak/o)
macula A small spot or colored area; used alone to mean the yellowish spot in the retina that contains the fovea
optic disk The point where the optic nerve joins the retina; at this point, there are no rods or cones; also called the blind spot or optic papilla
orbit The bony cavity that contains the eyeball
palpebra An eyelid; a protective fold (upper or lower) that closes over the anterior surface of the eye (roots: palpebr/o, blephar/o) (adjective: palpebral) (plural: palpebrae)
pupil The opening at the center of the iris (root: pupil/o)
refraction The bending of light rays as they pass through the eye to focus on a specific point on the retina; also the determination and correction of ocular refractive errors
retina The innermost, light-sensitive layer of the eye; contains the rod and cones, the specialized receptor cells for vision (root: retin/o)
rod A specialized cell in the retina that responds to light; rods have low visual acuity, function in dim light, and do not respond to color
sclera The tough, white, fibrous outermost layer of the eye; the white of the eye (root: slcer/o)
uvea The middle, vascular layer of the eye (root: uve/o); consists of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris
visual acuity Sharpness of vision
vitreous body The transparent jelly-like mass that fills the eyeball's main cavity; also called vitreous humor
blephar/o eyelid
palpebr/o eyelid
dacry/o tear, lacrimal apparatus
dacryocyst/o lacrimal sac
lacrim/o tear, lacrimal apparatus
opt/o eye, vision
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
scler/o sclera
corne/o cornea
kerat/o cornea
lent/i lens
phak/o, phac/o lens
uve/o uvea
chori/o, choroid/o choroid
cycl/o ciliary body, ciliary muscle
ir, irit/o, irid/o iris
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
-opsia condition of vision
-opia condition of the eye, vision
age-related macular degeneration (AMD) Deterioration of the macula associated with aging; macular degeneration impairs central vision
astigmatism An error of refraction caused by irregularity in the curvature of the cornea or lens
cataract Opacity of the lens of the eye
conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva; pink eye
diabetic retinopathy Degenerative changes in the retina associated with diabetes mellitus
glaucoma An eye disease caused by increased intraocular pressure that damages the optic disk and causes vision loss; usually results from faulty fluid drainage from the anterior eye
hyperopia A refractive error in which light rays focus behind the retina and objects can be seen clearly only when far from the eye; farsightedness; also called hypermetropia
myopia A refractive error in which light rays focus in front of the retina and objects can be seen clearly only when very close to the eye; nearsightedness
ophthalmia neonatorum Severe conjunctivitis usually caused by infection with gonococcus during birth
phacoemulsification Removal of a cataract by ultrasonic destruction and extraction of the lens
presbyopia Changes in the eye that occur with age; the lens loses elasticity and the ability to accommodate for near vision
retinal detachment Separation of the retina from its underlying layer
trachoma An infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis leading to inflammation and scarring of the cornea and conjunctiva; a common cause of blindness in underdeveloped countries
canthus The angle at either end of the slit between the eyelids
diopter A measurement unit for the refractive power of a lens
emmetropia The normal condition of the eye in refraction, in which parallel light rays focus exactly on the retina
fundus A bottom or base; the region farthest from the opening of a structure; the eye's fundus is the posterior portion of the interior eyeball as seen with an ophthalmoscope
meibomian gland A sebaceous gland in the eyelid
tarsus The framework of dense connective tissue that gives shape to the eyelid; tarsal plate
zonule A system of fibers that holds the lens in place; also called suspensory ligaments
amblyopia A condition that occurs when visual acuity is not the same in the two eyes in children (prefix ambly means "dim"); disuse of the poorer eye will result in blindness if not corrected; also called "lazy eye"
anisocoria Condition in which the two pupils (root: cor/o) are not of equal size
blepharoptosis Drooping of the eyelid
chalazion A small mass on the eyelid resulting from the inflammation and blockage of a meibomian gland
drusen Small growths that appear as tiny yellowish spots beneath the retina of the eye; typically occur with age but also occur in certain abnormal conditions
floater A small moving object in the field of vision that originates in the vitreous body; floaters appear as spots or threads and are caused by benign degenerative or embryonic deposits in the vitreous body that cast a shadow on the retina
hordeolum Inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid; a sty
keratoconus Conical protrusion of the corneal center
miosis Abnormal contraction of the pupils (from Greek meiosis meaning "diminution")
mydriasis Pronounced or abnormal dilation of the pupil
nyctalopia Night blindness; inability to see well in dim light or at night (root: nyct/o); often due to lack of vitamin A, which is used to make the pigment needed for vision in dim light
nystagmus Rapid, involuntary, rhythmic movements of the eyeball; may occur in neurologic diseases or disorders of the inner ear's vestibular apparatus
papilledema Swelling of the optic disk (papilla); choked disk
phlyctenule A small blister or nodule on the cornea or conjunctiva
pseudophakia A condition in which a cataractous lens has been removed and replaced with a plastic lens implant
retinitis Inflammation of the retina; causes include systemic disease, infection, hemorrhage, exposure to light
retinitis pigmentosa A hereditary chronic degenerative disease of the retina that begins in early childhood; there is atrophy of the optic nerve and clumping of pigment in the retina
retinoblastoma A malignant glioma of the retina; usually appears in early childhood and is sometimes hereditary; fatal if untreated, but current cure rates are high
scotoma An area of diminished vision within the visual field
strabismus A deviation of the eye in which the visual lines of each eye are not directed to the same object at the same time; also called heterotropia or squint
synechia Adhesion of parts, especially adhesion of the iris to the lens and cornea (plural: synechiae)
xanthoma A soft, slightly raised, yellowish patch or nodule usually on the eyelids; occurs in the elderly; also called xanthelasma
canthotomy Surgical division of a canthus
cystotome Instrument for incising the lens capsule
electroretinography (ERG) Study of the retina's electrical response to light stimulation
enucleation Surgical removal of the eyeball
gonioscopy Examination of the angle between the cornea and the iris (anterior chamber angle) in which fluids drain out of the eye (root goni/o means "angle")
keratometer An instrument for measuring the curvature of the cornea
mydriatic A drug that causes dilation of the pupil
phorometer An instrument for determining the degree and kind of strabismus
retinoscope An instrument used to determine refractive errors of the eye; also called a skiascope
slit-lamp biomicroscope An instrument for examining the eye under magnification
Snellen chart A chart printed with letters of decreasing size used to test visual acuity when viewed from a set distance; results reported as a fraction giving a subject's vision compared with normal vision at a distance of 20 feet
tarsorrhaphy Suturing together of all or part of the upper and lower eyelids
tonometer An instrument used to measure fluid pressure in the eye
A, Acc Accommodation
AMD Age-related macular degeneration
ARC Abnormal retinal correspondence
As, AST Astigmatism
cc With correction
Em Emmetropia
EOM Extraocular movement, muscles
ERG Electroretinography
ET Esotropia
FC Finger counting
HM Hand movements
IOL Intraocular lens
IOP Intraocular pressure
NRC Normal retinal correspondence
NV Near vision
sc Without correction
VA Visual acuity
VF Visual field
XT Exotropia
Created by: SeedyVampire
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