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NAU A&P 20

NAU A&P Urinary System

Flow of urine: Glomerulus-Bowman's capsule-Proximalconvoluted tubule-DescendingLimb-LoopofHenle-AscendingLimb-DistalConvolutedTubule-Juxtaglomerularapparatus-CollectingTubule-RenalPyramids-RenalPapillae-MinorCalyx-MajorCalyx-RenalPelvis-Ureters-UrinaryBladder-Urethra
Blood flow of the Kidney: Abdominal aorta-Renal artery-Interlobar Artery-Arcurate artery-Interlobular artery-Afferent Arteriole-into the Glomerla capillary-Efferent Arteriole-Peritubular/ Vasa Recta-Interlobular Vein-Arcurate Vein-Interlobar Vein-Renal Vein-Inferior Vena Cava
Organs of the Urinary sytem: Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder and Urethra
Renal organ encased in a fibrous connective tissue membrane, located behind the abdominal cavity. Kidney
This carries blood to the nephrons and then this carries deoxygenated blood back to the inferior vena cava Renal Arteries and Renal Veins
Name the structures of the Kidney: Hilum, Renal Medulla, Renal Cortex, Nephron
Medial indention where the renal artery, vein, and ureter enter and leave the kidney. Tubing for blood flow and urine. Hilum
Center portion containing Renal pyramids, Renal Pelvis, Renal Papillae, Minor Calyx and Major Calyx Renal Medulla
Composed of millions of collecting ducts, the tips of point toward the center area, located in the Renal Medulla. Ex: Make-up brush Renal Pyramids
The center area the Renal Pyramids point to, made up of 2 or more Major Calcyes put together, located in the Renal Medulla Renal Pelvis
The tips of the collection area. Located in the Renal Medulla. Calcyes
A collecting basin at the terminal end of the renal papillae Minor Calyx
Made up of 2 or more minor calyces put together. Major Calyx
Tip of the Renal pyramids Renal Papillae
Makes up the Nephron: Renal Corpuscle, Glomerulus, Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Descending Limb of Loop of Henle, Loop of Henle, Ascending Limb of
Situated between the renal cortex and the renal medulla, it is the functional unit of the kidney composed, basic function is to clean blood. Nephron
Is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla Renal Cortex
The fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each kidney. Renal Capsule
Means behind the abdominal cavity Retroperitoneal
Subdivisions of the Nephron: Cortical Nephron and Medullary Nephron
Bulb of capillaries surrounded by a covering or Bowman's capsule Glomerulus
Covers the Gomerulus or bulb of capillaries. Is involved with filtration of water and solutes smaller than protein Bowman's capsule
Bowman's Capsule contains: Afferent Arteriole, Efferent Arteriole and Peritubular capillaries
Blood supply going into the glomerulus Afferent Arteriole
Blood supply exiting the glomerulus Efferent Arteriole
Small blood vessels surrounding the tubing that lie near the glomerulus Peritubular capillaries
Closest tube leading from glomerulus. Tube is twisted to increase surface area. Proximal Convoluted tubule
Tubule comes down away from the glomerulus. H2O reabsorbed via passive transport. Descending Limb
180 degree hairpin turn of the tubule leading back toward the glomerulus. NaCl resorption via passive transport. Loop of Henle
Tubule comes backs up toward the glomerulus. NaCl resorption via active transport. Ascending Limb
Twisted tube farthest away from the gomerulus but closely touches the afferent arterioles. Distal Convoluted Tubule
The point at which the distal convoluted tubule makes the contact with the afferent arteriole to regulate the kidney function. Releases renin which activates angiotensin Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Makes up little lines in renal pyramid, comes together at the minor calyx. Collecting Tubule
Moderates the pressure in the kidneys for proper filtration. Angiotenesin
Determines how the blood flows and gives rise to angiotensin. Renin
If this is high enough will rupture tiny capillaries, cells and tubing in the kidneys. High Blood Pressure
This disease causes clotting during filtration and can cause ischemic situations. Sickle Cell Anemia
Functions of Kidneys: Excretion of unwanted substances, Maintenance of water balance, Regulation of the acid-base balance of body fluids, Regulation of blood pressure, Regulation of red blood cell production
Is regulated by antidiuretic hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. Enzymes renin and angiotensin will shut off ADH. Maintenance of water balance
In response to low oxygen levels, the kidney releases the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates RBC production in the bone marrow. Regulation of red blood cell production
Regulation by Angiotensin enzyme Regulation of blood pressure
Renal blood vessels: Renal arteries, Interlobar arteries, Arcuate arteries, Interlobular arteries, Afferent Arterioles, Efferent Venuoles
Generally paired vessels coming off the descending aorta Renal arteries,
First branches that pass between the pyramids Interlobar arteries
Incomplete arches formed from the interlobar arteries Arcuate arteries
Are formed from the terminal ends of the arcuate arteries Interlobular arteries
Are the terminal branches of the interlobular arteries that in turn, become intimately intertwined around the convoluted tubules of the nephrons, cleans blood Afferent Arterioles
Give rise to venous counterparts until the renal vein reaches the inferior vena cava, lead to the peritubular capillaries or vasa recta. Efferent Venuoles
Ways of Tubular Resorption: Diffusion, Osmosis and Active Transport
Moves molecules from higher concentrations to lower concentrations. Ex: air fresheners Diffusion
Movement of water or fluid to an area of higher to lower concentration Osmosis
Moving substances against the concentration gradient, (going uphill) and is selectively permeable, ( kool-aid from packet to a pitcher of water Active Transport
Some substances are actively moved from the blood into the nephron to regulate the acid-base pH balance of the body fluids Tubular Secretion
Influenced by the ADH-Antidiuretic hormone, as the filtrate passes through the loop of Henle, electrolytes, especially sodium, are actively pumped out by nephron's cells, resulting in an increased concentration of the interstitial fluid Concentration of Urine
Summary of Urine Formation: Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion, countercurrent mechanism
Allows diffusable materials to pass from the blood into the nephron Glomerular filtration
Moves useful substances back into the blood while keeping waste products in the nephron to be eliminated. Ex: Accidentally deletes e-mail, searching for e-mail amongst other deleted e-mails Tubular Reabsorption
Moves additional substances from the blood into the nephron for elimination to balance the pH of the body. Ex: replied to the e-mail and now can be deleted, no longer needed. Tubular Secretion
Concentrates the urine and reduces excretion volume Countercurrent Mechanism
Slender muscular tubes that extend from the kidneys to the inferior portion of the bladder. Conducted via peristalsis, closes off urine coming into bladder once urine is eliminated will open again to allow for urine collection Ureters
Temporary reservoir for urine Urinary bladder
Tube that extends from the bladder to the outside of the body Urethra
Male urethra divided into: Prostatic urethra, membranous urethra and penile urethra
Urethra in females is: 2 inches
Urethra in males is: 6 inches, 3 inches within the pelvic cavity
Urethra immediately below the bladder in males: Prostatic urethra
Urethra up and over the bladder in males: Membranous Urethra
Urethra portion contained within the Corpus Spongiosum in males Penile Urethra
Problems where the urethra swells Prostate problems, enlarged prostate
Expulsion of Urine Urination/Micturition
Created by: FKrouse