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chap 6 digestive sy

Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Terms

anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
cachexia Physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer.
cholelithiasis Presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
cirrhosis Scarring and dysfunction of the liver cause by chronic liver disease
colic Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
Crohn disease Chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
deglutition Act of swallowing
dysentery Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
dyspepsia Epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
dysphagia Inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
eructation Producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
fecalith Fecal concretion
flatus Gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
halitosis Offensive, or “bad,” breath
hematemesis Vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
vomiting irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
malabsorption syndrome Symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
melena Passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
obesity Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body’s skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight.
morbid obesity Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight.
obstipation Severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
oral leukoplakia Formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
peristalsis Progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
pyloric stenosis Stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
regurgitation Backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
steatorrhea Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
endoscopy Visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
upper GI Endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy)
lower GI Endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal (proctoscopy)
hepatitis panel Panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus—hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV)-causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
liver function tests (LFTs) Group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
serum bilirubin Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
stool culture Test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces
stool guaiac Applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult (trade name of a modified guaiac test)
barium enema (BE) Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series
barium swallow Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series
cholecystography Radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
computed tomography (CT) Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCP) Radiographic examination of bile duct structures
sialography Radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
ultrasonography (US) Test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to analyze the reflected echos from anatomical structures and convert them into an image on a video monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echogram
abdominal Ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder
biopsy (bx) Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
nasogastric intubation Procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
anastomosis Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
ileorectal Surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
intestinal Surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy
bariatric surgery Group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems
vertical banded gastroplasty Upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch. A band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB) Stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch. Next, the jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration.
colostomy Creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy Procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
extracorporeal shockwave Use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts
polypectomy Excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy Incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
Created by: Esuvill0
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