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Chapter 16, MedTerms

The Endocrine System

GH (growth hormone), also called somatotropin Produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth of all body tissues
TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) Produced by the anterior pituitary gland; stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) Produced by the anterior pituitary gland; stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortical hormones; aids in protecting body in stress situations (injury, pain)
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) Produced by the anterior pituitary gland; stimulates growth and hormonal activity of ovarian follicles; stimulates growth of testes; promotes sperm cell development
LH (luteinizing hormone) Produced by the anterior pituitary gland; causes development of corpus luteum at site of ruptured ovarian follicle in female; stimulates testosterone secretion in male
PRL (prolactin) Produced by the anterior pituitary gland; stimulates milk secretion by mammary glands
ADH (antidiuretic hormone; vasopressin) Produced by the posterior pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption in kidney tubules; causes blood vessels to constrict
oxytocin Produced by the posterior pituitary gland; causes uterine contraction; causes milk ejection from mammary glands
thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) Produced by the thyroid; increase metabolic rate and heat production, influencing both physical and mental activities; required for normal growth
parathyroid hormone (PTH) Produced by the parathyroid; regulates calcium exchange between blood and bones; increases blood calcium level
cortisol (hydrocortisone) Produced by the adrenal cortex; aids in metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; active during stress
aldosterone Produced by the adrenal cortex; aids in regulating electrolytes and water balance
sex hormones Produced by the adrenal cortex; may influence secondary sexual characteristics
epinephrine (adrenaline) Produced by the adrenal medulla; response to stress; increases respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
insulin Produced by the pancreatic islet; aids glucose transport into cells; required for cellular metabolism of nutrients, especially glucose; decreases blood glucose levels
glucagon Produced by the pancreatic islet; stimulates liver to release glucose, thereby increasing blood glucose levels
melatonin Produced by the pineal; regulates mood, sexual development, and daily cycles in response to environmental light
testosterone Produced by the testis; stimulates growth and development of sexual organs plus development of secondary sexual characteristics; stimulates maturation of sperm cells
estrogen Produced by the ovaries; stimulates growth of primary sexual organs and development of secondary sexual characteristics
progesterone Produced by the ovaries; prepares uterine lining for implantation of fertilized ovum; aids in maintaining pregnancy; stimulates development of mammary glands' secretory tissue
adrenal gland A gland on the superior surface of the kidney; the outer region (cortex) secretes steroid hormones; the inner region (medulla) secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) in response to stress (root: adren/o)
endocrine Pertaining to a ductless gland that secretes hormones into the blood
hormone A secretion of an endocrine gland; a substance that travels in the blood and has a regulatory effect on tissues, organs, or glands
hypophysis The pituitary gland; named from hypo, meaning "below," and physis, meaning "growing," because the gland develops below the hypothalamus (root: hypophysi/o)
pancreatic islet Cluster of endocrine cells in the pancreas that secretes hormones to regulate glucose metabolism; also called islet of Langerhans or islet cells (root insul/o means "island")
parathyroid gland A small endocrine gland on the posterior thyroid that acts to increase blood calcium levels; there are usually four to six parathyroid glands (roots: parathyr/o, parathyroid/o); the name literally means "near the thyroid"
pineal gland A small gland in the brain; appears to regulate mood, daily rhythms, and sexual development in response to environmental light; secretes the hormone melatonin
pituitary gland A small endocrine gland at the base of the brain; the anterior lobe secrets growth hormone and hormones that stimulate other glands; the posterior lobe releases ADH and oxytocin manufactured in the hypothalamus (root: pituitar/i); hypophysis
prostaglandins A group of hormones produced throughout the body that have a variety of effects, including stimulation of uterine contractions and regulation of blood pressure, blood clotting, and inflammation
receptor A site on the cell membrane or within the cell to which a substance, such as a hormone, attaches
steroid hormone A hormone made from lipids; includes the sex hormones and the hormones of the adrenal cortex
target tissue The specific tissue on which a hormone acts; may also be called the target organ
thyroid gland An endocrine gland on either side of the larynx and upper trachea; it secretes hormones that affect metabolism and growth (roots: thyr/o, thyroid/o)
endocrin/o endocrine glands or system
pituitar/i pituitary gland, hypophysis
hypophysi/o pituitary gland, hypophysis
thyr/o, thyroid/o thyroid gland
parathyr/o, parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
adren/o, adrenal/o adrenal gland, epinephrine
adrenocortic/o adrenal cortex
insul/o pancreatic islets
growth hormone Hypersecretion results in gigantism (children), acromegaly (adults); hyposecretion results in dwarfism (children)
antidiuretic hormone Hypersecretion results in syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH); hyposecretion results in diabetes insipidus
aldosterone Hypersecretion results in aldosteronism; hyposecretion results in Addison disease
cortisol Hypersecretion results in Cushing syndrome; hyposecretion results in Addison disease
thyroid hormone Hypersecretion results in Graves disease, thyrotoxicosis; hyposecretion results in congenital and adult hypothyroidism
insulin Hypersecretion results in hypoglycemia; hyposecretion results in diabetes mellitus
parathyroid hormone Hypersecretion results in bone degeneration; hyposecretion results in tetany (muscle spasms)
acromegaly Overgrowth of bone and soft tissue, especially in the hands, feet, and face, caused by excess growth hormone in an adult; the name comes from acro meaning "extremity" and megal/o meaning "enlargement"
Addison disease A disease resulting from deficiency of adrenocortical hormones; it is marked by darkening of the skin, weakness, and alterations in salt and water balance
adenoma A neoplasm of a gland
adult hypothyroidism A condition caused by hypothyroidism in an adult; there is dry, waxy swelling, most notable in the face; formerly called myxedema
congenital hypothyroidism A condition caused by lack of thyroid secretion during development and marked by arrested physical and mental growth; also called infantile hypothyroidism
Cushing disease Overactivity of the adrenal cortex resulting from excess production of ACTH by the pituitary
Cushing syndrome A condition resulting from an excess of hormones from the adrenal cortex; it is associated with obesity, weakness, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hirsutism (excess hair growth)
diabetes insipidus A disorder caused by insufficient release of ADH from the posterior pituitary; it results in excessive thirst and production of large amounts of very dilute urine; insipidus means "tasteless," referring to the dilution of the urine
diabetes mellitus (DM) A disorder of glucose metabolism caused by deficiency of insulin production or inadequate tissue response to insulin; mellitus comes from the Latin root for honey, referring to the urine's glucose content
type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) Results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells; it generally appears in children and requires insulin administration
type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) Generally occurs in obese adults; it is treated with diet, exercise, and drugs to improve insulin production or activity, and sometimes insulin
exophthalmos Protrusion of the eyeballs, as seen in Graves disease
gigantism Overgrowth caused by excess growth hormone from the pituitary during childhood; also called gigantism
glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test A test that measures the binding of glucose to hemoglobin during the lifespan of a red blood cell; it reflects the average blood glucose level over two to three months and is useful in evaluating long-term therapy for diabetes mellitus
glycosuria Excess glucose in the urine
goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland; a simple (nontoxic) goiter is caused by iodine deficiency
Graves disease An autoimmune disease resulting in hyperthyroidism; a prominent symptom is exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeballs); also called diffuse toxic goiter
hyperglycemia Excess glucose in the blood
hypoglycemia Abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
insulin shock A condition resulting from an overdose of insulin, causing hypoglycemia
ketoacidosis Acidosis (increased acidity of body fluids) caused by excess ketone bodies, as in diabetes mellitus; diabetic acidosis
metabolic syndrome A state of hyperglycemia caused by cellular resistance to insulin, as seen in type 2 diabetes, in association with other metabolic disorders; also called syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome
panhypopituitarism Underactivity of the entire pituitary gland
tetany Irritability and spasms of muscles; may be caused by low blood calcium and other factors
sella turcica A saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone that contains the pituitary gland (literally means "Turkish saddle")
sphenoid bone A bone at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland
adrenogenital syndrome Condition caused by overproduction of androgens from the adrenal cortex, resulting in masculinization; may be congenital or acquired, usually as a result of an adrenal tumor
Conn syndrome Hyperaldosteronism caused by an adrenal tumor
craniopharyngioma A benign tumor of the pituitary gland
Hashimoto disease A chronic thyroiditis of autoimmune origin
impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) High blood glucose levels after glucose intake that may signal borderline diabetes mellitus
multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) A hereditary disorder that causes tumors in several endocrine glands; classified according to the combination of glands involved
pheochromocytoma A usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla or other structures containing chromaffin cells (cells that stain with chromium salts) (phe/o means "brown" or "dusky"); the adrenal tumor causes increased production of epinephrine
pituitary apoplexy Sudden massive hemorrhage and degeneration of the pituitary gland associated with a pituitary tumor; common symptoms include severe headache, visual problems, and loss of consciousness
seasonal affective disorder (SAD) A mood disorder with lethargy, depression, excessive need for sleep, and overeating that generally occurs in winter; thought to be related to melatonin levels as influenced by environmental light
Simmonds disease Hypofunction of the anterior pituitary (panhypopituitarism), usually because of an infarction; pituitary cachexia
thyroid storm A sudden onset of thyrotoxicosis symptoms occurring in patterns with hyperthyroidism who are untreated or poorly treated; may be brought on by illness or trauma; also called thyroid crisis
thyrotoxicosis Condition resulting from overactivity of the thyroid gland; symptoms include anxiety, irritability, weight loss, and sweating; the main example of thyrotoxicosis is Graves disease
von Recklinghausen disease Bone degeneration caused by excess production of parathyroid hormone; also called Recklinghausen disease of bone
fasting plasma glucose (FPG) Measurement of blood glucose after a fast of at least eight hours; a reading equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL indicates diabetes; also called fasting blood glucose (FBG) or fasting blood sugar (FBS)
free thyroxine index (FTI, T7) Calculation based on the amount of T4 present and T3 uptake, used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction
oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) Measurement of glucose levels in blood plasma after administration of a challenge dose of glucose to a fasting patient; used to measure patient's ability to metabolize glucose
radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) A test that measures thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine as an evaluation of thyroid function
radioimmunoassay (RIA) A method of measuring very small amounts of a substance, especially hormones, in blood plasma using radioactively labeled hormones and specific antibodies
thyroid scan Visualization of the thyroid gland after administration of radioactive iodine
thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) test Test that measures the main protein that binds T4 in the blood
transsphenoidal adenomectomy Removal of a pituitary tumor through the sphenoid sinus (space in the sphenoid bone)
A1c Glycated hemoglobin (test)
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH Antidiuretic hormone
BS Blood sugar
CSII Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
DM Diabetes mellitus
FBG Fasting blood glucose
FBS Fasting blood sugar
FPG Fasting plasma glucose
FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone
FTI Free thyroxine index
GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus
GH Growth hormone
HbA1c Hemoglobin A1 c; glycated hemoglobin
131I Iodine-131 (radioactive iodine)
IFG Impaired fasting blood glucose
IGT Impaired glucose tolerance
LH Luteinizing hormone
MEN Multiple endocrine neoplasia
NPH Neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test
PRL Prolactin
PTH Parathyroid hormone
RAIU Radioactive iodine uptake
RIA Radioimmunoassay
SIADH Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (secretion)
T1DM Type 1 diabetes mellitus
T2DM Type 2 diabetes mellitus
T3 Triiodothyronine
T4 Thyroxine; tetraiodothyronine
T7 Free thyroxine index
TBG Thyroxine-binding globulin
TSH Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Created by: SeedyVampire
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