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Chapter 14, MedTerms

The Male Reproductive System

TermDefinition
androgen Any hormone that produces male characteristics (root andr/o means "male")
bulbourethral gland A small gland beside the urethra below the prostate that secretes part of the seminal fluid; also called Cowper gland
circumcision Surgical removal of the end of the prepuce (foreskin)
coitus Sexual intercourse
ductus deferens The duct that conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct; also called vas deferens
ejaculation Ejection of semen from the male urethra
ejaculatory duct The duct formed by union of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle; it carries spermatozoa and seminal fluid into the urethra
epididymis A coiled tube on the surface of the testis that stores sperm until ejaculation (root: epididym/o)
erection The stiffening or hardening of the penis or the clitoris, usually because of sexual excitement
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads; in males, FSH stimulates Sertoli cells and promotes sperm cell development
gamete A mature reproductive cell, the spermatozoon in the male and the ovum in the female
glans penis The bulbous end of the penis
gonad A sex gland; testis or ovary
inguinal canal The channel through which the testis descends into the scrotum in the male
interstitial cells Cells located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce hormones, mainly testosterone; also called cells of Leydig
luteinizing hormone (LH) A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads; in males, it stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone
meiosis The type of cell division that forms the gametes; it results in cells with 23 chromosomes, half the number found in other body cells (from the Greek word meiosis meaning "diminution")
penis The male organ of copulation and urination (adjective: penile)
pituitary gland An endocrine gland at the base of the brain
prepuce The fold of skin over the glans penis; the foreskin
prostate gland A gland that surrounds the urethra below the bladder in males and contributes secretions to the semen (root: prostat/o)
puberty Period during which the ability for sexual reproduction is attained and secondary sex characteristics begin to develop
scrotum A double pouch that contains the testes (root: osche/o)
semen The thick secretion that transports spermatozoa (roots: semin, sperm/i, spermat/o)
seminal vesicle A sac-like gland behind the bladder that contributes secretions to the semen (root: vesicul/o)
Sertoli cell Cells in a seminiferous tubule that aids in the development of spermatozoa; sustentacular cell
spermatic cord Cord attached to the testis that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, and nerves enclosed within a fibrous sheath
spermatozoon Mature male sex cell (plural: spermatozoa) (roots: sperm/i, spermat/o)
testis The male reproductive gland (roots: test/o, orchi/o, orchid/o); plural is testes; also called testicle
testosterone The main male sex hormone
urethra The duct that carries urine out of the body and also transports semen in the male
vas deferens The duct that conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct; also called ductus deferens
test/o testis, testicle
orchi/o, orchid/o testis
osche/o scrotum
semin semen
sperm/i, spermat/o semen, spermatozoa
epididym/o epididymis
vas/o vas deferens, ductus deferens; also vessel
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
prostat/o prostate
chlamydial infection (chlamydia trachomatis, types D to K) Ascending infection of reproductive and urinary tracts; may spread to pelvis in women, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
lymphogranuloma venereum (chlamydia trachomatis, type L) General infection with swelling of inguinal lymph nodes; scarring of genital tissue
gonorrhea (neisseria gonorrhoeae; gonococcus, GC) Inflammation of reproductive and urinary tracts; urethritis in men; vaginal discharge and cervical inflammation (cervicitis) in women, leading to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); possible systemic infection; treated with antibiotics
bacterial vaginosis (gardnerella vaginalis) Vaginal infection with foul-smelling discharge
syphilis (treponema pallidum) A spirochete; primary stage: chancre (lesion); secondary stage: systemic infection and syphilitic warts; tertiary stage: degeneration of other systems; cause of spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and fetal deformities; treated with antibiotics
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) A disease that infects T cells of the immune system, weakening the host and leading to other diseases: usually fatal if untreated
genital herpes, herpes simplex virus (HSV) Painful genital lesions; in women, may be a risk factor in cervical carcinoma; often fatal infections of newborns; no cure at present
hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus (HBV) Causes liver inflammation, which may be acute or may develop into a chronic carrier state; linked to liver cancer
condyloma acuminatum (genital warts), human papillomavirus (HPV) Benign genital warts; in women, predisposes to cervical dysplasia and carcinoma; a vaccine against the most prevalent strains is available
trichomoniasis, Trichomonas vaginalis Vaginitis; green, frothy discharge with itching, pain on intercourse (dyspareunia), and painful urination (dysuria)
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate; frequently develops with age; also called benign prostatic hypertrophy
cryptorchidism Failure of the testis to descent into the scrotum
epididymitis Inflammation of the epididymis; common causes are UTIs and STIs
erectile dysfunction (ED) Inability of the male to perform intercourse because of failure to initiate or maintain an erection until ejaculation; impotence
impotence Erectile dysfunction
infertility Decreased capacity to produce offspring
inguinal hernia Protrusion of the intestine or other abdominal organ through the inguinal canal or through the wall of the abdomen into the scrotum
orchitis Inflammation of a testis; may be caused by injury, mumps virus, or other infections
prostatitis Inflammation of the prostate gland; often appears with UTI, STI, and a variety of other stresses
sexually transmitted infection (STI) Infection spread through sexual activity; also called sexually transmitted disease (STD) and formerly venereal disease (VD) (from Venus, the goddess of love)
sterility Complete inability to produce offspring
urethritis Inflammation of the urethra; often caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia infections
herniorrhaphy Surgical repair of a hernia
prostatectomy Surgical removal of the prostate
vasectomy Excision of the vas deferens; usually done bilaterally to produce sterility; may be accomplished through the urethra (transurethral resection)
emission The discharge of semen
genitalia The organs concerned with reproduction, divided into internal and external components
insemination Introduction of semen into a woman's vagina
orgasm A state of physical and emotional excitement, especially that which occurs at the climax of sexual intercourse
phallus The penis (adjective: phallic)
balanitis Inflammation of the glans penis and mucous membrane beneath it (root balan/o means "glans penis")
bladder neck obstruction (BNO) Blockage of urine flow at the outlet of the bladder; the common cause is benign prostatic hyperplasia
hydrocele The accumulation of fluid in a sac-like cavity, especially within the covering of the testis or spermatic cord
phimosis Narrowing of the prepuce's opening so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis
priapism Abnormal, painful, continuous erection of the penis, as may be caused by drugs or specific damage to the spinal cord
seminoma A tumor of the testis
spermatocele An epididymal cyst containing spermatozoa
variocele Enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord
brachytherapy Radiation therapy by placement of encapsulated radiation sources, such as seeds, directly into a tumor or nearby tissue (from Greek brachy, meaning "short")
castration Surgical removal of the testes or ovaries; hormones and drugs can inhibit the gonads to produce functional castration
Gleason tumor grade A system for assessing the severity of cancerous changes in the prostate; reported as a Gleason score
resectoscope Endoscopic instrument for transurethral removal of tissue from the urinary bladder, prostate gland, uterus, or urethra
Whitmore-Jewett staging A method for staging prostatic tumors; an alternate to TNM staging
AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
BNO Bladder neck obstruction
BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy)
DRE Digital rectal examination
ED Erectile dysfunction
FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone
GC Gonococcus
GU Genitourinary
HBV Hepatitis B virus
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HSV Herpes simplex virus
LH Luteinizing hormone
NGU Nongonococcal urethritis
PSA Prostate-specific antigen
STD Sexually transmitted disease
STI Sexually transmitted infection
TPUR Transperineal urethral resection
TSE Testicular self-examination
TUIP Transurethral incision of prostate
TURP Transurethral resection of prostate
UG Urogenital
UTI Urinary tract infection
VD Venereal disease (sexually transmitted infection)
VDRL Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (test for syphilis)
Created by: SeedyVampire