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Chapter 7

Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Terms

TermDefinition
acidosis Excessive acidity of body fluids
anosmia Absence of the sense of smell
apnea Temporary loss of breathing
asphyxia Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
atelectasis Collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung
cheyne-Stokes respiration Repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all
compliance Ease with which lung tissue can be stretched
coryza Head cold; upper respiratory infection (URI)
crackle Abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli; also called rale
croup Common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages and, sometimes, lungs
deviated nasal septum Displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils
epiglottitis Severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age
epistaxis Nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage
finger clubbing Enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
hypoxemia Deficiency of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen in tissues
pertussis Acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a “whoop” sound; also called whooping cough
pleurisy -isy: state of; condition Inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis
pneumoconiosis Disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust (anthracosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron dust (siderosis), and asbestos particles (asbestosis)
pulmonary edema Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure
pulmonary embolus Blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, tissue, air bubbles, and bacteria)
rhonchus Abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation
stridor High-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months of age; also called crib death
wheeze Whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
Mantoux test Intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
oximetry Noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry
polysomnography Test of sleep cycles and stages using continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, heart rhythm and, sometimes, direct observation of the person during slee
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) Multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane
spirometry Measurement of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
bronchoscopy Visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope (flexible fiberoptic or rigid) inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor
laryngoscopy Visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities
mediastinoscopy Visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes
arterial blood gas (ABG) Test that measures partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), carbon dioxide (Pco2), pH (acidity or alkalinity), and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample
sputum culture Microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonias
sweat test Measurement of the amount of salt (sodium chloride) in sweat
throat culture Test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci
radiography Process of producing images using an x-ray passed through the body or area and captured on a film
thoracic (chest) Images of the chest taken from anteroposterior (AP) projection, posteroanterior (PA) projection, lateral projection, or a combination of these projections
scan Imaging procedure that gathers information about a specific organ or structure of the body. In some cases, small amounts of injected radionuclide (tracer) are used to enhance images
lung Nuclear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli
aerosol therapy Lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways.Techniques include nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), and dry powder inhalers (DPIs)
lavage Irrigating or washing out of an organ, stomach, bladder, bowel, or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid
antral Irrigation of the antrum (maxillary sinus) in chronic or nonresponsive sinusitis
postural drainage Positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
pleurectomy Excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal
pneumectomy Excision of a lung
rhinoplasty Reconstructive surgery of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic purposes
septoplasty Surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
thoracentesis Surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity; also called pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis
tracheostomy Surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted
Created by: Esuvill0