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Chapter 13, MedTerms

The Urinary System

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) A hormone released from the pituitary gland that causes water reabsorption in the kidneys, thus concentrating the urine
angiotensin A substance that increases blood pressure; activated in the blood by renin, an enzyme produced by the kidneys
calyx A cup-like cavity in the pelvis of the kidney; also calix (plural: calices) (roots: cali/o, calic/o)
diuresis Excretion of urine; usually meaning increased urinary excretion
diuretic A substance that increases the excretion of urine; pertaining to diuresis
erythropoietin (EPO) A hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow
glomerular capsule The cup-shaped structure at the beginning of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and receives material filtered out of the blood; Bowman capsule
glomerular filtrate The fluid and dissolved materials that filter out of the blood and enter the nephron through the glomerular capsule
glomerulus The cluster of capillaries within the glomerular capsule (plural: glomeruli) (root: glomerul/o)
kidney An organ of excretion (roots: ren/o, nephr/o); the two kidneys filter the blood and form urine, which contains metabolic waste products and other substances as needed to regulate the water, electrolyte, and pH balance of body fluids
micturition The voiding of urine; urination
nephron A microscopic functional unit of the kidney; working with blood vessels, the nephron filters the blood and balances the composition of urine
renal cortex The kidney's outer portion; contains portions of the nephrons
renal medulla The kidney's inner portion; contains portions of the nephrons and ducts that transport urine toward the renal pelvis
renal pelvis The expanded upper end of the ureter that receives urine from the kidney (Greek root pyel/o means "basin")
renal pyramid A triangular structure in the renal medulla; composed of the nephrons' loops and collecting ducts
renin An enzyme produced by the kidneys that activates angiotensin in the blood
trigone A triangle at the base of the bladder formed by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra
tubular reabsorption The return of substances from the glomerular filtrate to the blood through the peritubular capillaries
urea The main nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) waste product in the urine
ureter The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder (root: ureter/o)
urethra The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (root: urethr/o)
urinary bladder The organ that stores and eliminates urine excreted by the kidneys (roots: cyst/o, vesic/o)
urination The voiding of urine; micturition
urine The fluid excreted by the kidneys; it consists of water, electrolytes, urea, other metabolic wastes, and pigments; a variety of other substances may appear in urine in cases of disease (root: ur/o)
ren/o kidney
nephr/o kidney
glomerul/o glomerulus
pyel/o renal pelvis
cali/o, calic/o calyx
ur/o urine, urinary tract
urin/o urine
ureter/o ureter
cyst/o urinary bladder
vesic/o urinary bladder
urethr/o urethra
acidosis Excessive acidity of body fluids
acute renal failure Loss of kidney function resulting from damage to the nephrons; causes may be injury, shock, toxins, or infections, among others
bacteriuria Presence of bacteria in the urine
cast A solid mold of a renal tubule found in the urine
cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually as a result of infection
dysuria Painful or difficult urination
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the kidney, primarily involving the glomeruli; the acute form usually occurs after an infection elsewhere in the body; the chronic form varies in cause and usually leads to renal failure
hematuria Presence of blood in the urine
hydronephrosis Collection of urine in the renal pelvis caused by obstruction; results in distention and renal atrophy
hypokalemia Deficiency of potassium in the blood
hyponatremia Deficiency of sodium in the blood
hypoproteinemia Decreased amount of protein in the blood; may be caused by kidney damage resulting in protein loss
hyperkalemia Excess amount of potassium in the blood
hypernatremia Excess amount of sodium in the blood
nephrotic syndrome Condition that results from glomerular damage leading to loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria); there is low plasma protein (hypoproteinemia), edema, and increased blood lipids as the liver releases lipoproteins; also called nephrosis
oliguria Elimination of small amounts of urine
proteinuria Presence of protein, mainly albumin, in the urine
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney, usually caused by infection
pyuria Presence of pus in the urine
renal colic Radiating pain in the region of the kidney associated with the passage of a stone
uremia Presence of toxic levels of urea and other nitrogenous substances in the blood as a result of renal insufficiency
urethritis Inflammation of the urethra, usually due to infection
urinary stasis Stoppage of urine flow; urinary stagnation
catheterization Introduction of a tube into a passage, such as through the urethra into the bladder for withdrawal of urine
cystoscope An instrument for examining the interior of the urinary bladder; also used for removing foreign objects, for surgery, and for other forms of treatment
dialysis Separation of substances by passage through a semipermeable membrane; dialysis is used to rid the body of unwanted substances when the kidneys are impaired or missing; the two forms of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis
hemodialysis Removal of unwanted substances from the blood by passage through a semipermeable membrane
intravenous pyelography (IVP) Radiographic visualization of the urinary tract after intravenous administration of a contrast medium that is excreted in the urine; also called excretory urography or intravenous urography
intravenous urography (IVU) Radiographic visualization of the urinary tract after intravenous administration of a contrast medium that is excreted in the urine; also called excretory urography or intravenous pyelography
lithotripsy Crushing of a stone
peritoneal dialysis Removal of unwanted substances from the body by introduction of a dialyzing fluid into the peritoneal cavity followed by removal of the fluid
retrograde pyelography Pyelography in which the contrast medium is injected into the kidneys from below by way of the ureters
specific gravity (SG) The weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of water; the specific gravity of normal urine ranges from 1.015 to 1.025; this value may increase or decrease in disease
urinalysis (UA) Laboratory study of the urine; physical and chemical properties and microscopic appearance are included
cystectomy Surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
ileal conduit Diversion of urine by connection of the ureters to an isolated segment of the ileum; one end of the segment is sealed, and the other drains through an opening in the abdominal wall; a procedure used when the bladder is removed or nonfunctional
lithotomy Incision of an organ to remove a stone (calculus)
renal transplantation Surgical implantation of a donor kidney into a patient
aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that regulates electrolyte excretion by the kidneys
clearance The volume of plasma that the kidneys can clear of a substance per unit of time; renal plasma clearance
creatinine A nitrogenous byproduct of muscle metabolism; an increase in blood creatinine is a sign of renal failure
detrusor muscle The muscle in the bladder wall
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) The amount of filtrate formed per minute by both kidneys
maximal transport capacity (Tm) The maximum rate at which a given substance can be transported across the renal tulbule; tubular maximum
renal corpuscle The glomerular capsule and the glomerulus considered as a unit; the filtration device of the kidney
anuresis Lack of urination
anuria Lack of urine formation
azotemia Presence of increased nitrogenous waste, especially urea, in the blood
azoturia Presence of increased nitrogenous compounds, especially urea, in the urine
cystocele Herniation of the bladder into the vagina; vesicocele
dehydration Excessive loss of body fluids
diabetes insipidus A condition caused by inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone, resulting in excessive excretion of dilute urine and extreme thirst
enuresis Involuntary urination, usually at night; bed-wetting
epispadias A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsal surface of the penis as a groove or cleft; anaspadias
glycosuria Presence of glucose in the urine, as in cases of diabetes mellitus
horseshoe kidney A congenital union of the lower poles of the kidneys, resulting in a horseshoe-shaped organ
hydroureter Distention of the ureter with urine due to obstruction
hypospadias A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the undersurface of the penis or into the vagina
hypovolemia A decrease in blood volume
neurogenic bladder Any bladder dysfunction that results from a central nervous system lesion
nocturia Excessive urination at night (root: noct/o means "night")
polycystic kidney disease A hereditary condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts
polydipsia Excessive thirst
polyuria Elimination of large amounts of urine, as in diabetes mellitus
retention of urine Accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate
staghorn calculus A kidney stone that fills the renal pelvis and calices to give a "staghorn" appearance
ureterocele A cyst-like dilation of the ureter near its opening into the bladder; usually results from a congenital narrowing of the ureteral opening
urinary frequency A need to urinate often without an increase in average output
urinary incontinence Inability to retain urine; may originate with a neurologic disorder, trauma to the spinal cord, weakness of the pelvic muscles, urinary retention, or impaired bladder function
urinary urgency Sudden need to urinate
water intoxication (hyponatremia) Excess intake or retention of water with decrease in sodium concentration; causes an imbalance in the cellular environment, with edema and other disturbances
Wilms tumor A malignant kidney tumor that usually appears in children before the age of 5 years
anion gap A measure of electrolyte imbalance
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea; an increase in BUN indicates an increase in nitrogenous waste products in the blood and renal failure
clean-catch specimen A urine sample obtained after thorough cleansing of the urethral opening and collection in midstream to minimize the chance of contamination
cystometrography A study of bladder function in which the bladder is filled with fluid or air and the pressure exerted by the bladder muscle at varying degrees of filling is measured; the tracing recorded is a cystometrogram
protein electrophoresis (PEP) Laboratory study of urinary proteins; used to diagnose multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and lymphoid tumor
urinometer Device for measuring the specific gravity of urine
indwelling Foley catheter A urinary tract catheter with a balloon at one end that prevents the catheter from leaving the bladder
lithotrite Instrument for crushing a bladder stone
ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme
ADH Antidiuretic hormone
ARF Acute renal failure
ATN Acute tubular necrosis
BUN Blood urea nitrogen
CAPD Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CCPD Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis
CMG Cystometrography; cystometrogram
CRF Chronic renal failure
EPO Erythropoietin
ESRD End-stage renal disease
ESWL Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
GFR Glomerular filtration rate
GU Genitourinary
IVP Intravenous pyelography
IVU Intravenous urography
K Potassium
KUB Kidney-ureter-bladder (radiography)
Na Sodium
PEP Protein electrophoresis
SG Specific gravity
Tm Maximal transport capacity
UA Urinalysis
UTI Urinary tract infection
Created by: SeedyVampire
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