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Chapter 10, MedTerms

Blood and Immunity

TermDefinition
Erythrocyte (red blood cell) Tiny (7 mcm diameter), biconcave disk without nucleus (anuclear); carries oxygen bound to hemoglobin; also carries some carbon dioxide and buffers blood; 5 million per microliter of blood
Leukocyte (white blood cell) Larger than red cell with prominent nucleus that may be segmented or unsegmented; types vary in staining properties; protects against pathogens and destroys foreign matter and debris; located in blood, tissues, and lymphatic system; 5k to 10k per mL
Platelet (thrombocyte) Fragment of large cell (megakaryocyte); hemostasis; forms a platelet plug and starts blood clotting (coagulation); 150,000 to 450,000 per microliter of blood
neutrophil Cell type: granulocyte; relative percentage per adult is 54 to 62 percent; functions in phagocytosis
eosinophil Cell type: granulocyte; relative percentage per adult is 1 to 3 percent; functions in allergic reactions, defends against parasites
basophil Cell type: granulocyte; relative percentage per adult is less than 1 percent; functions in allergic reactions
lymphocyte Cell type: agranulocyte; relative percentage per adult is 25 to 38 percent; functions in immunity (T cells and B cells)
monocyte Cell type: agranulocyte; relative percentage per adult is 3 to 7 percent; functions in phagocytosis
agranulocyte A white blood cell that does not have visible granules in its cytoplasm; agranulocytes include lymphocytes and monocytes
albumin A simple protein found in blood plasma
antibody A protein produced in response to and interacting specifically with an antigen
antigen A substance that induces the formation of an antibody
antigen-presenting cell (APC) Immune cell that takes in a foreign antigen, processes it, and presents it on the cell surface in combination with the body's own proteins, thus activating a T cell; examples are dendritic cells and macrophages, which are descendants of monocytes
B cell A lymphocyte that matures in bone marrow and is active in producing antibodies; B lymphocyte
band cell An immature neutrophil with a nucleus in the shape of a band; also called a stab cell; band cell counts are used to trace infections and other diseases
basophil A granular leukocyte that stains strongly with basic dyes; active in allergic reactions
blood The fluid that circulates in the cardiovascular system (roots: hem/o, hemat/o)
coagulation Blood clotting
cross-matching Testing the compatibility of donor and recipient blood in preparation for a transfusion; donor red cells are mixed with recipient serum to look for an immunologic reaction; similar tests are done on tissues before transplantation
electrolyte A substance that separates into charged particles (ions) in solution; a salt; term also applied to ions in body fluids
eosinophil A granular leukocyte that stains strongly with acidic dyes; active in allergic reactions and defense against parasites
erythrocyte A red blood cell (roots: erythr/o, erythrocyt/o)
erythropoietin (EPO) A hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow; this hormone is now made by genetic engineering for clinical use
fibrin The protein that forms a clot in the blood coagulation process
fibrinogen The inactive precursor of fibrin
formed elements The cellular components of blood
gamma globulin The fraction of the blood plasma that contains antibodies; given for passive transfer of immunity
granulocyte A white blood cell that has visible granules in its cytoplasm; granulocytes include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb) The iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen
hemostasis The stoppage of bleeding
immunity The state of being protected against a disease (root: immun/o)
immunoglobulin (Ig) An antibody; immunoglobulins fall into five classes, each abbreviated with a capital letter: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
leukocyte A white blood cell (roots: leuk/o, leukocyt/o)
lymphocyte An agranular leukocyte active in immunity (T and B cells); found in both the blood and in lymphoid tissue (roots: lymph/o, lymphocyt/o)
megakaryocyte A large bone marrow cell that fragments to release platelets
monocyte An agranular phagocytic leukocyte
neutrophil A granular leukocyte that stains weakly with both acidic and basic dyes; the most numerous of the white blood cells; a type of phagocyte
phagocytosis The engulfing of foreign material by white blood cells
plasma The liquid portion of the blood
plasma cell A mature form of a B cell that produces antibodies
platelet A formed element of the blood that is active in hemostasis; a thrombocyte (root: thrombocyt/o)
serum The fraction of the plasma that remains after blood coagulation; it is the equivalent of plasma without its clotting factors (plural: sera, serums)
T cell A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and attacks foreign cells directly; T lymphocyte
thrombocyte A blood platelet (root: thrombocyt/o)
-emia, -hemia condition of blood
-penia decrease in, deficiency of
-poiesis formation, production
myel/o bone marrow
hem/o, hemat/o blood
erythr/o, erythrocyt/o red blood cell
leuk/o, leukocyt/o white blood cell
lymph/o, lymphocyt/o lymphocyte
thromb/o blood clot
thrombocyt/o platelet, thrombocyte
immun/o immunity, immune system
azot/o nitrogenous compounds
calc/i calcium (symbol Ca)
ferr/o, ferr/i iron (symbol Fe)
sider/o iron
kali potassium (symbol K)
natri sodium (symbol Na)
ox/y oxygen (symbol O)
red blood cell count (RBC) test number of red blood cells per microliter of blood
white blood cell count (WBC) test number of white blood cells per microliter of blood
differential count (Diff) test relative percentage of the different types of leukocytes
hematocrit (Ht, Hct, crit) test relative percentage of packed red cells in a given volume of blood
packed cell volume (PCV) test hematocrit
hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb) test amount of hemoglobin in g/dL (100 mL) of blood
mean corpuscular volume (MCV) test volume of an average red cell
mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) test average weight of hemoglobin in red blood cells
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) test average concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test rate of erythrocyte setting per unit of time; used to detect infection or inflammation
complete blood count (CBC) test series of tests including cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and cell volume measurements
activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test Measures time required for clot formation; used to evaluate clotting factors and monitor heparin therapy
bleeding time (BT) test Measures capacity of platelets to stop bleeding after a standard skin incision
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test Evaluates clotting factors; similar to APTT, but less sensitive
prothrombin time (PT, pro time) test Indirectly measures prothrombin; used to monitor anticoagulant therapy; also called Quick test
thrombin time, thrombin clotting time (TT, TCT) test Measures how quickly a clot forms
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Immune system failure caused by infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus); the virus infects certain T cells and thus interferes with immunity
allergen A substance that causes an allergic response
allergy Hypersensitivity
anaphylactic reaction An exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign substance; it may lead to death caused by circulatory collapse and respiratory distress if untreated; also called anaphylaxis (from Greek phylaxis, meaning "protection")
anemia A deficiency in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; may result from blood loss, malnutrition, a hereditary defect, environmental factors, and other causes
angioedema A localized edema with large hives (wheals) similar to urticaria but involving deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
aplastic anemia Anemia caused by bone marrow failure resulting in deficient blood cell production, especially of red cells; pancytopenia
autoimmune disease A condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against an individual's own tissues (prefix auto means "self")
Cooley anemia A form of thalassemia (hereditary anemia) that affects production of the β (beta) hemoglobin chain; thalassemia major
delayed hypersensitivity reaction An allergic reaction involving T cells that takes at least 12 hours to develop; examples are various types of contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy or poison oak; the tuberculin reaction (test for TB); and rejections of transplanted tissue
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Widespread clot formation in the microscopic vessels; may be followed by bleeding caused by depletion of clotting factors
ecchymosis A collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small vessels (root chym means "juice")
hemolysis The rupture of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin (adjective: hemolytic)
hemophilia A hereditary blood disease caused by lack of a clotting factor resulting in abnormal bleeding
hemorrhagic anemia Anemia that results from blood loss, as from an injury or internal bleeding
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) The virus that causes AIDS
Hodgkin disease A neoplastic disease of unknown cause that involves the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other tissues; characterized by the presence of giant Reed-Sternberg cells
hypersensitivity An immunologic reaction to a substance that is harmless to most people; allergy
immunodeficiency A congenital or acquired failure of the immune system to protect against disease
intrinsic factor A substance produced in the stomach that aids in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12, necessary for the manufacture of red blood cells; lack of intrinsic factor causes pernicious anemia
Kaposi sarcoma Cancerous lesion of the skin and other tissues, seen most often in patients with AIDS
leukemia Malignant overgrowth of immature white blood cells; may be chronic or acute; may affect bone marrow (myelogenous leukemia) or lymphoid tissue (lymphocytic leukemia)
lymphadenopathy Any disease of the lymph nodes
multiple myeloma A tumor of the blood-forming tissue in bone marrow
non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) A widespread malignant disease of lymph nodes that involves lymphocytes; it differs from Hodgkin disease in that giant Reed-Sternberg cells are absent
nutritional anemia Anemia resulting from a dietary deficiency, usually of iron, vitamin B12, or folate
Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) An abnormal chromosome found in the cells of most individuals with chronic granulocytic (myelgenous) leukemia
pernicious anemia Anemia caused by failure of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12; this vitamin is required for the formation of erythrocytes
petechiae Pinpoint, flat, purplish-red spots caused by bleeding within the skin or mucous membrane (singular: petechia)
purpura A condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs, and other tissues (from Greek word meaning "purple"); thrombocytopenic purpura is caused by a deficiency of platelets
sickle cell anemia A hereditary anemia caused by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin; red blood cells become sickle-shaped when they give up oxygen and interfere with normal blood flow to the tissues; most common in black populations of West African descent
sideroblastic anemia Anemia caused by inability to use available iron to manufacture hemoglobin; the excess iron precipitates in normoblasts (developing red blood cells)
Sjögren syndrome An autoimmune disease involving dysfunction of the exocrine glands and affecting secretion of tears, saliva, and other body fluids; deficiency leads to dry mouth, tooth decay, corneal damage, eye infections, and difficulty in swallowing
splenomegaly Enlargement of the spleen
systemic lupus erythematosus Inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin and multiple organs; patients are sensitive to light and may have a red butterfly-shaped rash over the nose and cheeks
systemic sclerosis A diffuse connective tissue disease that may have involve any system causing inflammation, degeneration, and fibrosis; also called scleroderma because it causes thickening of the skin
thalassemia A group of hereditary anemias mostly found in populations of Mediterranean descent (the name comes from the Greek word for "sea")
thrombocytopenia A deficiency of thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood
urticaria A skin reaction consisting of round, raised eruptions (wheals) with itching; hives
adrenaline A powerful stimulant produced by the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system; activates the cardiovascular, respiratory, and other systems needed to meet stress; used as a drug to treat severe allergic reactions and shock; also called epinephrine
CD4+ T lymphocyte count A count of the T cells that have the CD4 receptors for the AIDS virus (HIV); a count of less than 200/mcL of blood signifies severe immunodeficiency
epinephrine A powerful stimulant produced by the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system; activates the cardiovascular, respiratory, and other systems needed to meet stress; used as a drug to treat severe allergic reactions and shock; also called adrenaline
reticulocyte counts Blood counts of reticulocytes, a type of immature red blood cell; reticulocyte counts are useful in diagnosis to indicate the rate of erythrocyte formation
Reed-Sternberg cells Giant cells that are characteristic of Hodgkin disease; they usually have two large nuclei and are surrounded by a halo
agglutination The clumping of cells or particles in the presence of specific antibodies
bilirubin A pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin and eliminated by the liver in bile
complement A group of plasma enzymes that interacts with antibodies
corpuscle A small mass or body; a blood corpuscle is a blood cell
hemopoietic stem cell A primitive bone marrow cell that gives rise to all varieties of blood cells
heparin A substance found throughout the body that inhibits blood coagulation; an anticoagulant
plasmin An enzyme that dissolves clots; also called fibrinolysin
thrombin The enzyme derived from prothrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin
agranulocytosis A condition involving a decrease in the number of granulocytes in the blood; also called granulocytopenia
erythrocytosis Increase in the number of red cells in the blood; may be normal, such as to compensate for life at high altitudes, or abnormal, such as in cases of pulmonary or cardiac disease
Fanconi syndrome Congenital aplastic anemia that appears between birth and 10 years of age; may be hereditary or caused by damage before birth, as by a virus
graft versus host reaction (GVHR) An immunologic reaction of transplanted lymphocytes against tissues of the host; a common complication of bone marrow transplantation
hairy cell leukemia A form of leukemia in which cells have filaments making them look hairy
hematoma A localized collection of blood, usually clotted, caused by a break in a blood vessel
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), erythoblastosis fetalis Disease that results from incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus, usually involving Rh factor; an Rh-negative mother produces antibody to an Rh-positive fetus that will destroy the red cells of an Rh-positive fetus in later births
hemosiderosis A condition involving the deposition of an iron-containing pigment (hemosiderin) mainly in the liver and the spleen; the pigment comes from hemoglobin released from disintegrated red blood cells
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) A clotting disorder caused by destruction of platelets that usually follows a viral illness; causes petechiae and hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes
infectious mononucleosis An acute infectious disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); characterized by fever, weakness, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytes (resembling monocytes)
lymphocytosis An increase in the number of circulating lymphocytes
myelodysplastic syndrome Bone marrow dysfunction resulting in anemia and deficiency of neutrophils and platelets; may develop in time into leukemia; preleukemia
myelofibrosis Condition in which bone marrow is replaced with fibrous tissue
neutropenia A decrease in the number of neutrophils with increased susceptibility to infection; causes include drugs, irradiation, and infection; may be a side effect of treatment for malignancy
pancytopenia A decrease in all cells of the blood, as in aplastic anemia
polycythemia Any condition in which there is a relative increase in the percent of red blood cells in whole blood; may result from excessive production of red cells due to oxygen lack, as caused by high altitudes, an obstruction, heart failure, or certain poisons
apparent polycythemia A condition which results from concentration of the blood, as by dehydration
polycythemia vera A condition in which overactive bone marrow produces too many red blood cells that interfere with circulation and promote thrombosis and hemorrhage; treated by blood removal; also called erythremia and Vaquez-Osler disease
septicemia Presence of microorganisms in the blood
spherocytic anemia Hereditary anemia in which red blood cells are round instead of disk shaped and rupture (hemolyze) excessively
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) An often fatal disorder in which multiple clots form in blood vessels
von Willebrand disease A hereditary bleeding disease caused by lack of von Willebrand factor, a substance necessary for blood clotting
Bence Jones protein A protein that appears in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma
Coombs test A test for detection of antibodies to red blood cells, such as those appearing in cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemias
electrophoresis Separation of particles in a liquid by application of an electrical field; used to separate components of blood
ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a highly sensitive immunologic test used to diagnose HIV infection, hepatitis, and Lyme disease, among others
monoclonal antibody A pure antibody produced in the laboratory; used for diagnosis and treatment
pH A scale that measures the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution; represents the amount of hydrogen ion in the solution
Schilling test Test used to determine absorption of vitamin B12, measuring excretion of radioactive B12 in the urine; used to distinguish pernicious from nutritional anemia
seroconversion The appearance of antibodies in the serum in response to a disease or an immunization
Western blot assay A very sensitive test used to detect small amounts of antibodies in the blood
Wright stain A commonly used blood stain
anticoagulant An agent that prevents or delays blood coagulation
antihistamine A drug that counteracts the effects of histamine and is used to treat allergic reactions
apheresis A procedure in which blood is withdrawn, a portion is separated and retained, and the remainder is returned to the donor; apheresis may be used as a suffix with a root meaning the fraction retained, such as plasmapheresis, leukapheresis
autologous blood A person's own blood; may be donated in advance of surgery and transfused if needed
cryoprecipitate A sediment obtained by cooling; the fraction obtained by freezing blood plasma contains clotting factors
desensitization Treatment of allergy by small injections of the offending allergen, causing an increase of antibody to destroy the antigen rapidly on contact
homologous blood Blood from animals of the same species, such as human blood used for transfusion from one person to another; blood used for transfusions must be compatible with the recipient's blood
immunosuppression Depression of the immune response; may be correlated with disease but also may be induced therapeutically to prevent rejection in cases of tissue transplantation
protease inhibitor An anti-HIV drug that acts by inhibiting an enzyme the virus needs to multiply
Ab Antibody
Ag Antigen, also silver
AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ALL Acute lymphoblastic (lymphocytic) leukemia
AML Acute myeloblastic (myelogenous) leukemia
APC Antigen-presenting cell
APTT Activated partial thromboplastin time
BT Bleeding time
CBC Complete blood count
CGL Chronic granulocytic leukemia
CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML Chronic myelogenous leukemia
crit Hematocrit
DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Diff Differential count
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EPO, EP Erythropoietin
ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FFP Fresh frozen plasma
Hb, HgB Hemoglobin
Hct, Ht Hematocrit
HDN Hemolytic disease of the newborn
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
IF Intrinsic factor
Ig Immunoglobulin
ITP Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
lytes Electrolytes
MCH Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
MCHC Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
mcL Microliter
mcm Micrometer
MCV Mean corpuscular volume
MDS Myelodysplastic syndrome
mEq Milliequivalent
NHL Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
PCV Packed cell volume
pH Scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration (acidity or alkalinity)
Ph Philadelphia chromosome
PMN Polymorphonuclear (neutrophil)
poly, polymorph, seg Neutrophil
PT Prothrombin time; pro time
PTT Partial thromboplastin time
RBC Red blood cell; red blood (cell) count
SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus
T(C)T Thrombin (clotting) time
TTP Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
vWF von Willebrand factor
WBC White blood cell; white blood (cell) count
Created by: SeedyVampire