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Chapter 2

Biomolecules 2.4-2.7

TermDefinition
Carbohydrates Molecules used for quick, short term energy.
Monosaccharide A simple sugar/ a carbohydrate subunit
Pentose A sugar made of five carbons
Hexose A sugar made of six carbons
Glucose The sugar used by the human body for immediate energy
Disaccharide Two monosaccharides joined together
Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides joined together
Starch/Glycogen Storage molecules made of many glucose molecules. Starch is found in plants and glycogen is found in animals.
Cellulose A polysaccharide found in plant cells. A good dietary fiber.
Lipids High energy biomolecules that function as long-term energy storage in organisms. (Fats)
Steroids A special type of lipid that play an important role in hormone production.
Fats Found in animals, characterized by being solid at room temperature.
Oils Usually found in plants and are liquid at room temperature.
Function of body fats Energy storage, insulation from heat loss, cushions major body organs.
Fat Molecule Structure A glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acids.
Emulsifiers Cause fats and water to mix. (Soap)
Phospholipids A special type of fat that contains a phosphate group. Phospholipids make up cell membranes.
Proteins Molecules composed of amino acids.
Amino Acids Protein subunits that contain a central carbon, amino groups (Amino), carboxyl groups (Acid), and special R groups.
Protein Structure Proteins require special shapes to function properly.
Denaturation An irreversible change to a protein shape that changes the function. (Cooking an egg)
Enzymes Special proteins that allow chemical reactions to occur more easily. (Lowers activation energy of a reaction)
Nucleic Acids Macromolecules composed of nucleotides (DNA or RNA)
Nucleotides A DNA subunit.
Genes A piece of DNA that codes for a body protein
ATP An energy storage molecule that is used to release energy for chemical reactions.
Created by: Mr.Klein
 

 



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