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Chapter 2

Chemistry of Life 2.1-2.3

TermDefinition
Atom Smallest unit of an element that still retains the chemical and physical properties of the element.
Subatomic Particles Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Atomic Number The number of protons an atom has.
Mass Number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
Mole A unit of measure for the number of atoms.
Isotope An atom with an abnormal number of neutrons. Can cause atoms and elements to become radioactive.
Compounds A combination or joining of two atoms.
Ionic Bond A bond resulting from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another, producing ions.
Cation A positively charged ion.
Anion A negatively charged ion.
Covalent Bond A bond resulting from the sharing of electrons between two atoms.
Hydrogen Bonds A weak attraction of hydrogen to negatively charged atoms or molecules. Important for life.
Hydrophilic Water loving molecules. (Will dissolve in water)
Hydrophobic Water fearing molecules. (Will not dissolve in water)
Acid A substance that releases hydrogen ions when added to water.
Base A substance that takes up free hydrogen ions or releases hydroxide ions when added to water.
pH The measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
Electrolytes Substances that release ions when placed in water.
Dehydration Reaction The removal of water, resulting in the building of a larger molecule from two smaller molecules.
Hydrolysis Reaction The breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules.
Created by: Mr.Klein