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Chapter 1 Anatomy

ChattState Anatomy Lecture

What is the definition of Anatomy? The study of apperance
What does anatomy and dissection both mean? "Cutting apart" and dissection is essential for study
What does comparative anatomy studies? The study of multiple species in order to examine similarities and differences and examine evolutionary trends
What is Radiology? Branch of medicine that studies imaging
What is Gross Anatomy? Structure that can be seen with the naked eye(by surface observation, radiology, or dissection)
What is histology? The observation of tissues with a microscope (microscopic anatomy)
What is Histopathology? Microscopic examination of the tissues for sins of disease
What is Cytology? Study of the structure and function of individual cells
What is Physiology? The study of function
What is Comparative physiology? The study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance, respiration, and reproduction
What is a Hypothesis An educated speculation or possible answer to a question
What is a Sample Size? The number of subjects used in a study
What are Control Groups? Biomedical experiments require comparison between treated and untreated individuals so that we can judge whether the treatment has any effect
What is the difference between a Control Group and a Treatment Group? A control group consist of subjects that are as much alike as the treatment group as possible except with respect to the variable being treated. Control group receives NO treatment.
What is a Placebo? A substance that with no significant physiological effect on the body. In testing drugs the control group would possibly get sugar tablets that look identical to the test drug. None of the subjects will know which tablet they are receiving
What is a Peer Review? A critical evaluation by other experts in a particular field. It is a mechanism for ensuring honesty , objectivity, and quality science.
What is a Fact? Information that can be independently verified by any trained person.
What is a Law? Is a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave. It is the result of inductive reasoning basked on repeated, confirmed observations.
What is a Theory? Is a explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts , laws, and confirmed hypothesis.
What is the hierarchy of the human body? Organism, Organs, Tissues, Cells, Organelles, and molecules.
What is an organism made of? Composed of organs
What are organs made of? Composed of tissues
What are tissues composed of? Composed of cells
What are cells composed of? Composed of organelles
What are organelles composed of? Composed of molecules
What is a organism? A single complete individual
What is an organ system? A group of organs with a unique collective function.
What are the 11 organ systems? Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Circulatory, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Urinary, Digestive, and Reproductive
What is an organ? A structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function. There are definite boundaries and are distinguishable from other structures.
What is the largest organ? Skin, Organs within this organ exist in the skin. Contains thousands of smaller organs such as glands, hair, nails, blood vessels, and nerves.
What is a tissue? A mass of similar cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs and specific function
What are the four primary tissue classes? Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscular
What are cells? The smallest units of and organism that carry out its individual functions
What are organelles? Microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions
What are molecules? A particle composed of at least atoms. Proteins, fats, and DNA are examples.
What are atoms? The smallest particles with unique chemical identities.
What is anatomical variation? No two humans are exactly alike. Reference books and materials usually provide only the most common form based on 70% of the population
What are the properties of life? Organization, Cellular composition, Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Homeostasis, Development, Reproduction, Evolution of a population.
What are the properties of life(organization)? Living things exhibit a higher level of organization than nonliving things.
What are the properties of life(cellular composition)? Living matter is always compartmentalized into one or more cells.
What are the properties of life( metabolism)? Taking in molecules from the environment and chemically changing them for structures or energy.
What are the properties of life(responsiveness)? Irritability and excitability. Ability to sense and react to stimuli(Changing in environment)
What are the properties of life(movement)? Most organisms are capable of self-propelled movement from place to place and ALL organisms are capable of moving substances internally
What are the properties of life(homeostasis)? Maintaining relatively stable internal conditions.
What are the properties of life(development)? Any change in form or function over the lifetime of an organism.
What are the properties of life(reproduction)? Producing copies of themselves passing games genes to offspring
What are the properties of life( Evolution of population)? Changes in genes from generation to generation . Mutations(change in DNA structure)