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Chapter 07, MedTerms

Diagnosis and Treatment; Surgery

TermDefinition
anesthesia Loss of the ability to feel pain, as by administration of a drug
auscultation Listening for sounds within the body, usually within the chest or abdomen
biopsy Removal of a small amount of tissue for microscopic examination
cautery Destruction of tissue by a damaging agent, such as a harmful chemical, heat, or electric current (electrocautery); cauterization
chemotherapy Use of chemicals to treat disease; the term is often applied specifically to the treatment of cancer with chemicals
diagnosis The process of determining the cause and nature of an illness
endoscope An instrument for examining the inside of an organ or cavity through a body opening or small incision; most endoscopes use fiberoptics for viewing
excision Removal by cutting (suffix: -ectomy)
fixation Holding or fastening a structure in a firm position (suffix: -pexy)
grading A method for evaluating a tumor based on microscopic examination of the cells
immunotherapy Treatment that involves stimulation or suppression of the immune system, either specifically or nonspecifically
incision A cut, as for surgery; also the act of cutting (suffix: -tomy)
inspection Visual examination of the body
laser A device that transforms light into a beam of intense heat and power; used for surgery and diagnosis
ophthalmoscope An instrument for examining the interior of the eye
otoscope Instrument used to examine the ears
palliative therapy Providing relief but not cure; a treatment that provides such relief
palpation Examining by placing the hands or fingers on the surface of the body to determine characteristics such as texture, temperature, movement, and consistency
percussion Tapping the body lightly but sharply to assess the condition of the underlying tissue by the sounds obtained
prognosis Prediction of a disease's course and outcome
radiography Use of x-rays passed through the body to make a visual record (radiograph) of internal structures either on specially sensitized film or digitally; roentgenography
remission Lessening of disease symptoms; the period during which this decrease occurs or the period when no sign of a disease exists
sign Objective evidence of disease that can be observed or tested; examples are fever, rash, high blood pressure, and blood or urine abnormalities; an objective symptom
sphygmomanometer Blood pressure apparatus or blood pressure cuff; pressure is read in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) when the heart is contracting (systolic pressure) and when the heart is relaxing (diastolic pressure) and is reported as systolic/diastolic
staging The process of classifying malignant tumors for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis
stethoscope An instrument used for listening to sounds produced within the body (from the Greek root steth/o, meaning "chest")
surgery A method for treating disease or injury by manual operations
suture To unite parts by stitching them together; also the thread or other material used in that process or the seam formed by surgical stitching (suffix: -rhaphy, -rrhaphy)
symptom Any evidence of disease; sometimes limited to subjective evidence of disease as experienced by the individual, such as pain, dizziness, and weakness
therapy Treatment, intervention
vital signs Measurements that reflect basic functions necessary to maintain life
acupuncture Ancient Chinese method of inserting thin needles into the body at specific points to relieve pain, induce anesthesia, or promote healing; similar effects can be obtained by using firm finger pressure at the surface of the body, called acupressure
biofeedback A method for learning control of involuntary physiologic responses by using electronic devices to monitor bodily changes and feeding this information back to a person
chiropractic A science that stresses the condition of the nervous system in diagnosis and treatment of disease; often, the spine is manipulated to correct misalignment; most patients consult for musculoskeletal pain and headaches (from Greek cheir, meaning "hand")
holistic healthcare Practice of treating a person as a whole entity with physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs; it stresses comprehensive care, involvement in one's own care, and the maintenance of good health rather than the treatment of disease
homeopathy A philosophy of treating disease by administering drugs in highly diluted form along with promoting healthy life habits and a healthy environment (from home/o, meaning "same," and path/o, meaning "disease")
massage Manipulation of the body or portion of the body to calm, relieve tension, increase circulation, and stimulate muscles
meditation Process of clearing the mind by concentrating on the inner self while controlling breathing and perhaps repeating a word or phrase (mantra)
naturopathy A therapeutic philosophy of helping people heal themselves by developing healthy lifestyles; naturopaths may use some of the methods of conventional medicine (from nature and path/o, meaning "disease")
osteopathy A system of therapy based on the theory that the body can overcome disease when it has normal structure, a favorable environment, and proper nutrition
osteopaths Osteopaths use standard medical practices for diagnosis and treatment but stress the identification and correction of faulty body structure (from oste/o, meaning "bone," and path/o, meaning "disease")
aer/o air, gas
bar/o pressure
chrom/o, chromat/o color, stain
chron/o time
cry/o cold
electr/o electricity
erg/o work
phon/o sound, voice
phot/o light
radi/o radiation, x-ray
son/o sound
therm/o heat, temperature
-graph instrument for recording data
-graphy act of recording data
-gram a record of data
-meter instrument for measuring
-metry measurement of
-scope instrument for viewing or examining
-scopy examination of
-centesis puncture, tap
-desis binding, fusion
-ectomy excision, surgical removal
-pexy surgical fixation
-plasty plastic repair, plastic surgery, reconstruction
-rhaphy, -rrhaphy surgical repair, suture
-stomy surgical creation of an opening
-tome instrument for incising (cutting)
-tomy incision, cutting
-tripsy crushing
clubbing Enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes because of soft-tissue growth of the nails; seen in a variety of diseases, especially lung and heart diseases
colic Acute abdominal pain associated with smooth muscle spasms
cyanosis Bluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen
diaphoresis Profuse sweating
malaise A feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, often indicative of infection or other disease (from French, meaning "discomfort," using the prefix mal-, meaning "bad")
nocturnal Pertaining to or occurring at night (roots noct/i and nyct/o mean "night")
pallor Paleness, lack of color
prodrome A symptom indicating an approaching disease
sequela A lasting effect of a disease (plural: sequelae)
syncope A temporary loss of consciousness because of inadequate blood flow to the brain, fainting
alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) A fetal protein that appears in the blood of adults with certain types of cancer
bruit A sound, usually abnormal, heard in auscultation
facies The expression or appearance of the face
febrile Pertaining to fever
nuclear medicine The branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances (radionuclides) for diagnosis, therapy, and research
radiology The branch of medicine that uses radiation, such as x-rays, in the diagnosis and treatments of disease; a specialist in this field is a radiologist
radionuclide A substance that gives off radiation; used for diagnosis and treatment; also called radioisotope or radiopharmaceutical
speculum An instrument for examining a canal
syndrome A group of signs and symptoms that together characterize a disease condition
catheter A thin tube that can be passed into the body; used to remove fluids from or introduce fluids into a body cavity
clysis The introduction of fluid into the body, other than orally, as into the rectum or abdominal cavity; also refers to the solution thus used
irrigation Flushing of a tube, cavity, or area with a fluid
lavage The washing out of a cavity, irrigation
normal saline (NS) A salt (NaCl) solution compatible with living cells, also called physiologic saline solution (PSS)
paracentesis Puncture of a cavity for removal of fluid
prophylaxis Prevention of disease
drain Device for allowing matter to escape from a wound or cavity; common types include Penrose (cigarette), T-tube, Jackson-Pratt (J-P), and Hemovac
ligature A tie or bandage, the process of binding or tying (also called ligation)
resection Partial excision of a structure
stapling In surgery, the joining of tissue by using wire staples that are pushed through the tissue and then bent
surgeon A physician who specializes in surgery
primary
secondary (to)
change
left
right
increase(d)
decrease(d)
male
female
° degree
^ above
v below
= equal to
not equal to
± doubtful, slight
~ approximately
x times
# number, pound
ADL Activities of daily living
BP Blood pressure
bpm Beats per minute
C Celsius (centigrade)
CC Chief complaint
c/o, co Complains (complaining) of
EOMI Extraocular muscles intact
ETOH Alcohol (ethyl alcohol)
F Fahrenheit
HEENT Head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
h/o History of
H&P History and physical
HPI History of present illness
HR Heart rate
Hx History
I&O Intake and output
IPPA Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation
IVDA Intravenous drug abuse
NAD No apparent distress
NKDA No known drug allergies
P Pulse
PE Physical examination
PE(R)RLA Pupils equal (regular) react to light and accommodation
PMH Past medical history
pt Patient
R Respiration
R/O Rule out
ROS Review of symptoms
T Temperature
TPR Temperature, pulse, respiration
VS Vital signs
WD Well developed
WNL Within normal limits
w/o Without
YO, y/o Years old, year-old
ABC Aspiration biopsy cytology
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
BS Bowel sounds, breath sounds
bx Biopsy
CAM Complementary and alternative medicine
Ci Curie (unit of radioactivity)
C&S Culture and (drug) sensitivity (of bacteria)
CT Computed tomography
D/C, dc Discontinue
Dx Diagnosis
EBL Estimated blood loss
ICU Intensive care unit
I&D Incision and drainage
MET Metastasis
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging
NCCAM National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
NS, N/S Normal saline
PCA Patient-controlled analgesia
PET Positron emission tomography
PICC Peripherally inserted central catheter
postop Postoperative
preop Preoperative
PSS Physiologic saline solution
RATx Radiation therapy
Rx Drug, prescription, therapy
SPECT Single-photon emission computed tomography
TNM (Primary) tumor, (regional lymph) nodes, (distant) metastases
UV Ultraviolet
AP Anteroposterior
LL Left lateral
PA Posteroanterior
RL Right lateral
AMA Against medical advice
AMB Ambulatory
BRP Bathroom privileges
CBR Complete bed rest
DNR Do not resuscitate
KVO Keep vein open
NPO Nothing by mouth (Latin, non per os)
OOB Out of bed
QNS Quantity not sufficient
QS Quantity sufficient
STAT Immediately
TKO To keep open
Created by: SeedyVampire