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Chapter 06, MedTerms

Disease

TermDefinition
bacteria simple microscopic organisms that are widespread throughout the world, some can produce disease; singular: bacterium
cocci round bacteria; may be in clusters (staphylococci), chains (streptococci), and other formations; singular: coccus
bacilli rod-shaped bacteria; singular: bacillus
vibrios short curved rods
spirochetes corkscrew-shaped bacteria that move with a twisting motion
chlamydia extremely small bacteria with complex life cycles that grow in living cells but, unlike viruses, are susceptible to antibiotics
rickettsia extremely small bacteria that grow in living cells that are susceptible to antibiotics
viruses submicroscopic infectious agents that can live and reproduce only within living cells
fungi simple, nongreen plants, some of which are parasitic; includes yeasts and molds; singular: fungus
protozoa single-celled animals; singular: protozoon
helminths worms
acute Sudden, severe; having a short course
benign Not recurrent or malignant, favorable for recovery, describing a tumor that does not spread (metastasize) to other tissues
carcinoma A malignant neoplasm composed of epithelial cells (from Greek root carcino, meaning "crab") (adjective: carcinomatous)
chronic Of long duration, progressing slowly
cyst An abnormal filled sac or pouch; used as a root meaning a normal bladder or sac, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder (root: cyst/o)
edema Accumulation of fluid in the tissues, swelling; adjective: edematous
etiology The cause of a disease
Gram stain A laboratory staining procedure that divides bacteria into two groups: Gram-positive, which stain purple, and Gram-negative, which stain red
hernia Protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening; commonly called a rupture
immunity All our defenses against infectious disease
inflammation A localized response to tissue injury characterized by heat, pain, redness, and swelling
lesion A distinct area of damaged tissue an injury or wound
malignant Growing worse, harmful, tending to cause death, describing an invasive tumor that spread (metastasize) to other tissues
metastasis Spread from one part of the body to another, characteristic of cancer; verb is metastasize, adjective: metastatic; from Greek met/a (beyond, change) + stasis (stand)
microorganism An organism too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope
necrosis Death of tissue (root necr/o means "death"); adjective: necrotic
neoplasia An abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue; from prefix neo- meaning "new" and root plasm meaning "formation"
parasite An organism that grows on or in another organism (the host), causing damage to it
pathogen An organism capable of causing disease (root path/o means "disease")
phagocytosis The ingestion of organisms, such as invading bacteria or small particles of waste material by a cell (root phag/o means "to eat"); the phagocytic cell, or phagocyte, then destroys the ingested material
prolapse A dropping or downward displacement of an organ or part, ptosis
pus A product of inflammation consisting of fluid and white blood cells
sarcoma A malignant neoplasm arising from connective tissue (from Greek root sarco, meaning "flesh"); adjective: sarcomatous
sepsis The presence of harmful microorganisms or their toxins in the blood or other tissues; adjective: septic
toxin A poison; adjective: toxic (roots: tox/o, toxic/o)
trauma A physical or psychologic wound or injury
alg/o, algi/o, algesi/o pain
carcin/o cancer, carcinoma
cyst/o filled sac or pouch, cyst, bladder
lith calculus, stone
onc/o tumor
path/o disease
py/o pus
pyr/o, pyret/o fever, fire
scler/o hard
tox/o, toxic/o poison
brady- slow
dys- abnormal, painful, difficult
mal- bad, poor
pachy- thick
tachy- rapid
xero- dry
-algia, -algesia pain
-cele hernia, localized dilation
-clasis, -clasia breaking
-itis inflammation
-megaly enlargement
-odynia pain
-oma tumor
-pathy any disease of
-rhage, -rhagia bursting forth, profuse flow, hemorrhage
-rhea flow, discharge
-rhexis rupture
-schisis fissure, splitting
dilation, dilatation expansion, widening
ectasia, ectasis dilation, dilatation, distension
lysis separation, loosening, dissolving, destruction
malacia softening
ptosis dropping, downward displacement, prolapse
sclerosis hardening
spasm sudden contraction, cramp
stasis suppression, stoppage
stenosis narrowing, constriction
staphylo grape-like cluster
strepto- twisted chain
bacill/i, bacill/o bacillus
bacteri/o bacterium
myc/o fungus, mold
vir/o virus
acid-fast stain A laboratory staining procedure used mainly to identify the tuberculosis (TB) organism
communicable Capable of passing from one person to another, such as an infectious disease
endemic Occurring at a low level but continuously in a given region, such as the common cold (from en-, meaning "in" and Greek demos, meaning "people")
epidemic Affecting many people in a given region at the same time, a disease that breaks out in a large proportion of a population at a given time
exacerbation Worsening of disease, increase in severity of a disease or its symptoms
iatrogenic Caused by the effects of treatment (from Greek root iatro-, meaning "physician")
idiopathic Having no known cause (root idio means "self-originating")
in situ Localized, noninvasive (literally "in position"); said of tumors that do not spread, such as carcinoma in situ (CIS)
normal flora The microorganisms that normally live on or in the body and are generally harmless and often beneficial but can cause disease under special circumstances, such as injury or failure of the immune system
nosocomial Describing an infection acquired in a hospital (root nos/o means "disease," and comial refers to a hospital), which can be a serious problem
opportunistic Describing an infection that occurs because of a host's poor or altered condition
pandemic Describing a disease that is prevalent throughout an entire region or the world; for example, AIDS is pandemic in certain regions of the world
remission A lessening of disease symptoms, the period during which such lessening occurs
septicemia Presence of pathogenic bacteria in the blood, blood poisoning
systemic Pertaining to the whole body
abscess A localized collection of pus
adhesion A uniting of two surfaces or parts that may normally be separated
anaplasia Lack of normal differentiation, as shown by cancer cells
ascites Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
cellulitis A spreading inflammation of tissue
effusion Escape of fluid into a cavity or other body part
exudate Material that escapes from blood vessels as a result of tissue injury
fissure A groove or split
fistula An abnormal passage between two organs or from an organ to the surface of the body
gangrene Death of tissue, usually caused by lack of blood supply; may be associated with bacterial infection and decomposition
hyperplasia Excessive growth of normal cells in normal arrangement
hypertrophy An increase in the size of an organ without increase in the number of cells; may result from an increase in activity, as in muscles
induration Hardening, an abnormally hard spot or place
metaplasia Conversion of cells to a form that is not normal for that tissue (prefix meta- means "change")
polyp A tumor attached by a thin stalk
purulent Forming or containing pus
suppuration Pus formation
AF Acid fast
CA, Ca Cancer
CIS Carcinoma in situ
FUO Fever of unknown origin
Gm+ Gram-positive
Gm- Gram-negative
MDR Multi-drug resistant
MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Staph Staphylococcus
Strep Streptococcus
VRSA Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Created by: SeedyVampire