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Clini 2

Eyes and ears

CATARACTS Caused by clumping of protein with in the lense causing cloudiness and blurred vision ( leading cause of blindness worldwide )
CARARACTS S &.S Begin with haziness More glare with bright lights Cause unknown
CATARACTS RISK FACTORS Age / diabetes / obesity / smoking / family HX / steroids / alcohol use
OPTTHALMOLOGIST Specializes in disease and disorders of the eye RX /TX / SURGERY
AUDIOLOGIST Specializes in identifying and TX of hearing disorders NOT A MD MUST HAVE A DOCTORATE HEARING AIDS
OD Right eye
OS Left eye
OU Both eyes
AD Right ear
AS Left ear
AU Both ears
OE Otitis externa
OM Otitis media
OI Otitis interna
GLAUCOMA Group of diseases that lead to destruction of the optic nerve ( result from intraocular pressure)
GLAUCOMA S & S Loss of peripheral vision DX DONE WITH TONOMETER ( which measures intraocular pressure)
GLAUCOMA TX Surgery with trabeutectomy relieves pressure
GLAUCOMA RISK FACTORS African Americans / diabetes / over age of 60 extreme myopia
VISUAL ACUITY TESTING Screening procedures done to identify possible errors in refraction
MYOPIA ( near- sighted) Ability to only see objects up close
HYPEROPIA (Farsighted) Ability to only see objects far away
PREBYOPIA ( due to age ) Far - sightedness due to age Result of decreased elasticity of the lens Need reading glasses
ASTIGMATISM Abnormal curvature of the lens resulting in blurry vision
STRABISMUS Cross eyed /. Lazy eyes Result of muscle weakness Patches can be worn over good eye to strengthen lazy eye
SNELLEN CHART Distance visual acuity Series of letters in ascending order Most common eye chart used
SNELLEN fraction Top line indicates how many feet away PT stood from chart Bottom line indicates how many feet away a person with perfect vision can read the line
TUMBLING E / LANDOLT C TUMBLING E'S. E's facing in different directions used for young children or language barrier LANDOLT C'S. A segment of circles with different segments missing from each circle
JAEGER CHART NEAR VISIONS ACUITY Series of paragraphs in ascending order PT results are recorded as a paragraph read without error while holding chart 12 - 14 in from eyes
COLOR VISION ACUITY ISHIHARA CHART Series of plates made up of colored dots PT has to identify # in the middle to determine if they are color deficient
CONTRAST SENSITIVITY Various bcharts showing letters in fading contrast / used to detect: macular degeneration / diabetic retinopathy/ cataracts/ glaucoma
NEUROSENSORY HEARING LOSS Nerve damage : nerve deafness results from damage to inner ear or auditory nerve
NEUROSENSORY HEARING LOSS CAUSES Hereditary/ damage from infection disease ex: measles / mumps/ prolonged exposure to loud noises/ tumors/ degeneration from old age
CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS Sound waves cannot reach the middle ear
CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS CAUSES Impacted cerulean / tumors / polyps / and foreign body
EAR INFECTION OE OE : otitis externa aka swimmers ear Infection of outer ear canal Requires ABX get drops
EAR INFECTION OM Otitis media Most common infection in children < 2 hrs Collection of fluid in the middle ear behind the thymanic membrane
GROSS HEARING SCREEN Uses a tuning fork
WEBERS TEST Proformed on PT who hears better in one ear then the other
WEBERS TEST TUNING FORK Base of vibrating tuning fork is held on crown of head PT indicates which side they hear better
RINNE TEST Compares hearing through bone conduction verses air conduction
RINNE TEST IS DONE BY Tuning fork is placed on mastoid process behind the errand timed PT indicates when they no longer hear sounds ( bone conduction) Then held over outer ear and timed again until PT no longer hears sound (air conduction
NORMAL HEARING PT should hear sound threw air twice as long as sound threw bone
AUDIOMETER Sound measured at different frequencies
TYMPANOMETER THERMONITOR IN EAR Measures vibrations of tympanic membrane
VISUAL ACUITY Both near and distance as well as color vision assessment
AUDIOMETER Instrument that measures hearing
Ophthalmoscope Instrument to examine internal structures of the eye
Otoscope Instrument to examine the ear
EYE Spherical organ that allows vision
Eye 3 protective layers Sclera / choroid / conjunctiva Light enters eye via the cornea and passes threw to anterior chamber
Iris Colored part of the eye
EYE ANATONY Light passes through to the lens and then visualized image reaches the retina
FOVEA CENTRALIS Area in posterior retina where incoming light waves focus and light , color, and shapes formed into nerve impulses
RODS AND CONES Are found in the retina
AURICLE Outer ear serves as mini satellite to catch sound waves and funnel them into the inner ear
Sound waves pass through ? The auditory canal until the reach the eardrum or tympanic membrane
Ossicles Bones of the middle ear
COCHLEA Snail shaped structure of inner ear
Vibrations converted into nerve impulses and Transmitted via auditory nerve to the brain where they are processed as sound
INNER EAR 3 semicircular canals filled with fluid and hair like cells that move when liquid flows over them during motion of the head and body
Created by: Tbella
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