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Unit 2

Course 5011

Natural Science Empirical phenomena, Direct observation &measurement of phenomena or its permanent products
Science A systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world
Goals of Science Description, prediction, control and development technology
Types of Natural Science Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Behavior Analysis
Social Science Hypothetical constructs outside of the natural realm; Indirect observation & measurement
Types of Social Science Psychology, sociology, political science
Philosophical Assumptions Determinism, empiricism, parsimony, philosophical doubt, pragmatism
Determinsism The universe is a lawful and orderly place.
Empiricism Objective observation with thorough description and quantification of the phenomena of interest, behavior
Experimentation Systematic manipulation of an independent variable.
Replication Repeating any part of an experiment
Parsimony Requires that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomena of interest be ruled out experimentally before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
Philosophical Doubt Continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact.
Pragmatism Assesses the truth of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application.
Behaviorism The philosophy or world view underlying behavior analysis. Posits that behavior is the subject matter of our science.
Radical Behaviorism B.F. Skinner’s philosophy of the science of human behavior. Most influential type of behaviorism for guiding the science and practice of behavior analysis.
Determinants of Behavior Causes of behavior; probabilistic
Selection The process in which repeated cycles occur of variation, interaction with the environment, and differential replication as a function of the interaction
Natural Selection The environment selects which variations survive and are passed on.
Cultural Selection Cultural practices evolve as they contribute to the success of the practicing group.
Temporal contiguity The nearness of events in time.
Contingency A dependency between events.
Types of Contingencies S-S contingencies (pairing) R-S contingencies S-R-S contingencies (or the 3- term contingency)
Basic operations Direct observation Repeated measures Graph data Manipulation Systematic evaluation Analysis and interpretation
Consequential Operation (+) Contingently present a stimulus immediately after the response.
Consequential Operation (-) Contingently remove a stimulus immediately after the response.
Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.
Created by: LadyTEACH86