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chap final 2

0. Describe the general structure, function, and location of the heart. The heart is a hollow, cone-shaped, muscular pump located in the thorax. The average adult heart is about nine centimeters long and seven centimeters wide. It functions to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs and pump oxygenated blood to the body.
1. Describe the pericardium. pericardium consists of fibrous pericardium. visceral pericardium covers the heart. At the base of the heart, the visceral layer turns back upon itself to become the parietal pericardium, which forms the inner lining of the fibrous pericardium.
epicardium epicardium functions as a protective layer. consists of connective tissue covered by epithelium.
myocardium myocardium is relatively thick and consists largely of cardiac muscle tissue.
endocardium endocardium consists of epithelium and connective tissue The connective tissues house the Purkinje fibers, which function with the conduction system of the heart
3. Identify and describe the locations of the chambers and valves of the heart upper chambers = atria. thin walls receive blood returning to the heart. lower chambers = ventricles. They receive blood from the atria force blood out of the heart into the arteries.
4. Identify and describe the locations of the chambers and valves of the heart. tricuspid valve between right atrium and right ventricle. The bicuspid valve between left atrium and left ventricle. pulmonary semilunar valve between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. aortic semilunar valve between left ventricle and aorta.
Describe a cardiac cycle. atrial systole, atria contracting ventricular diastole (ventricular relaxation atrial diastole (atria relaxing ventricular systole (ventricles contracting) This entire process is one complete cardiac cycle.
5. Describe the skeleton of the heart, and explain its function. Rings of dense fibrous connective tissue surround proximal ends of pulmonary trunk and aorta. provides attachments from heart valves and muscle fibers. fibrous rings, with other masses of dense fibrous tissue constitute the skeleton of the heart.
6. Trace the path of blood through the heart. deoxygenated blood right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary semilunar valve pulmonary trunk. pulmonary arteries. lungs. left atrium bicuspid (mitral) valve left ventricle. aortic semilunar valve aortic arch
Trace the path of blood through the coronary circulation. Right and left coronary arteries. capillary system of the heart. Branches of the cardiac veins drain the blood veins empty into the coronary sinus emptying into the right atrium.
9. Describe the pressure changes that occur in the atria and ventricles during a cardiac cycle. Relaxed atria pressure ^ fill w/ blood contracting atria remaining blood into ventricles Pressure V in ventricles when filling ^ as they fill with blood. It rises sharply ventricles contract forcing the blood out into the appropriate vessels.
35. List and describe the changes occurring in the cariovascular system as a result of aging. cholesterol accumulation = disease. Fibrous connective tissue and adopose tissue enlarge heart by filling in when number and size of cardiac muscle cells V Blood pressure ^. resting heart rate V
10. Explain the origin of heart sounds. The first heart sound (lubb) occurs during ventricular contraction, when the tricuspid and bicuspid valves are closing. The second heart sound (dupp) occurs during ventricular relaxation, when the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves are closing.
11. Describe the arrangement of the cardiac muscle fibers. Cardiac muscle fibers are arranged in branching networks to pass impulses through the heart so it contracts as a unit.
12. Distinguish between the roles of the S-A node and the A-V node. S-A node is a small mass of specialized muscle tissue just beneath the epicardium. A-V node is located in the inferior portion of the septum and just beneath the endocardium= only normal conduction pathway between the atrial and ventricular syncytia.
12. Explain how the cardiac conduction system controls the cardiac cycle. impulse leaves S-A node, atrial syncytium, atria contract, A-V node, impulse is slowed enough for atria to empty and ventricles fill w/ blood. A-V bundle, splits in 2 branches, Purkinje fibers, impulse is faster, papillary muscles, heart. branch al
13. Describe and explain a normal ECG pattern. A normal ECG pattern consists of a P wave, a QRS complex, and a T wave. The P wave is caused by a depolarization of the atrial fibers just before they contract. The QRS complex is caused by the depolarization of ventricular fibers just prior to contractio
15. Describe two factors other than the nervous system that affect the cardiac cycle. Temperature change and certain ions influence the cardiac cycle. If the body temperature rises, the heart rate will increase, as with a fever. If the body temperature decreases, the heart rate will slow accordingly. K+ and Ca++ are the most important ions
14. Discuss how the nervous system regulates the cardiac cycle. . When the body needs the heart to slow down, the medulla oblongata sends impulses down the parasympathetic tracts to the S-A and A-V nodes. The release of acetylcholine causes the heart to decrease in activity. The parasympathetic nerves seem to be the mai
16. Distinguish between an artery and an arteriole. Arteries are strong, elastic vessels that are adapted for carrying the blood away from the heart under high pressure. An arteriole is a smaller, finer branch of an artery.
34. Describe the aorta, and name its principal branches. The aorta is the largest artery in the body extending upward from the left ventricle. It arches over the heart to the left and descends just in front of the vertebral column. Principal branches of the ascending aorta include the aortic sinus, The aortic
17. Explain control of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Vasoconstriction occurs when the smooth muscle in the wall of the vessels is stimulated by the vasomotor fibers of the sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. This causes contraction to occur, thereby decreasing the diameter of the vessel. I
24. Distinguish between a venule and a vein. A venule is a microscopic vessel that continues from the capillaries and merges with other venules to form veins. Veins are the counterpart to the arterial system that carries blood back to the heart.
33. Explain why the alveoli normally do not fill with fluid. The epithelial cells of the alveolar membrane are tightly joined so that most ions fail to enter the alveoli. This helps to maintain a relatively high osmotic pressure in the interstitial fluid. Osmosis will then move any water that gets into the alveoli
25. Explain how veins function as blood reservoirs. The valves prevent a backflow of blood. Their smooth muscle layer is much less developed, allowing more blood to remain in the vein. In times of hemorrhage accompanied by the drop in arterial blood pressure, the muscular walls are stimulated reflexly by s
26. Distinguish between systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction is called the systolic pressure. The diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure that remains in the arteries during ventricular diastole.
18. Describe the structure and function of a capillary. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels and connect the smallest arterioles to the smallest venules. They consist of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells that are continuous with the endothelium of the larger vessels. A capillary provides the se
19. Describe the function of the blood-brain barrier. The function of the blood-brain barrier is to shield delicate brain tissue from toxins in the bloodstream and from biochemical fluctuations that could overwhelm the brain.
20. Explain control of blood flow through a capillary. This is regulated mainly by the smooth muscles that encircle the capillary entrances. These muscles form precapillary sphincters, which may close a capillary by contracting or opening it by relaxing. The control of the precapillary sphincters is not clear
27. Name several factors that influence the blood pressure, and explain how each produces its effect. amount of blood that enters the arterial system with each ventricular contraction heart action amount of blood cells and plasma volume blood volume peripheral resistance in walls of blood vessels. viscosity ease with which molecules in a fluid slide
21. Explain how diffusion functions in the exchanges of substances between blood plasma and tissue fluid. Blood entering tissue capillaries =concentrations of molecules and ions > tissue fluid. nutrients & oxygen move in tissues bc concentrations of substances = higher in blood. wastes = higher concentrations in tissues > diffuse into blood plasma.
22. Explain why water and dissolved substances leave the arteriolar end of a capillary and enter the venular end. blood pressure at arteriolar end is greater than in the capillary. because of this, the blood pressure decreases when blood moves through the capillary. this makes outward filtration force less than the osmotic pressure. there is then a net movement
23. Describe the effect of histamine on a capillary. Histamine will increase capillary permeability.
28. Describe the control of blood pressure. regulation of cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Pressoreceptors trigger neural regulation of heart rate. Chemicals, such as epinephrine, emotions, physical exercise, and increased body temperature can influence cardiac output. Peripheral resistan
29. List the major factors that promote the flow of venous blood. a. Skeletal muscle contractions b. Respiratory movements c. Venoconstriction
30. Define central venous pressure. The pressure that is within the right atrium of the heart is known as the central venous pressure.
31. Distinguish between the pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular system. pulmonary circuit = vessels that carry the blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart. The systemic circuits = responsible for carrying the blood from the heart to all other parts of the body and back again.
32. Trace the path of the blood through the pulmonary circuit. right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs, arterioles, capillary networks associated with walls of alveoli, gas exchange between blood and air, pulmonary capillaries, venues, veins, oxygenated blood back to the left atrium.
8. Describe a cardiac cycle. atrial systole, atria contracting ventricular diastole (ventricular relaxation atrial diastole (atria relaxing ventricular systole (ventricles contracting) This entire process is one complete cardiac cycle.
33. Explain why the alveoli normally do not fill with fluid. epithelial cells of alveolar membrane tightly joined= ions fail to enter the alveoli. maintain high osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid. Osmosis move any water in the alveoli back to interstitial.
1. Distinguish between neurons and neuroglial cells. Neurons are the structural and functional cells reacting to the physical and chemical changes in their environment. Neuroglia are the supporting cells necessary for nourishing and maintaining the neurons, among other functions.
2. Explain the relationship between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of all of the peripheral nerves that connect all of the parts of the body with the CNS.
3. List three general functions of the nervous system. The nervous system functions in three ways: Sensory—sensory receptors note changes in their environment. Integrative—CNS make perceptions and sensations about environment. Motor—CNS send impulses along peripheral nerves to effectors in response to changes in internal and external environment.
4. Describe the generalized structure of a neuron. cell body, nerve fibers, granular cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, a Golgi apparatus, and many microtubules, Neurofibrils, Nissl bodies, nucleus, dendrites, axons.
5. Define myelin. sheaths of neuroglial cells called Schwann cells. These cells are wound tightly around the fibers. The layers are composed of a lipoprotein called myelin,
6. Distinguish between myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers. A myelinated nerve fiber is one, which is bound by Schwann cells longitudinally along its length. Unmyelinated nerve fibers lack these sheaths. . Myelinated (medullated) nerve fibers appear white. Unmyelinated nerve fibers appear gray.
7. Explain how a membrane may become polarized. A cell, in its normal state, has a negatively charged interior with respect to the exterior. This is accomplished by transport mechanism channels that let potassium ions move easily in and out, and keep sodium and calcium ions under tight control.
1. List the major components of blood. The blood consists of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma (the liquid portion).
3. Describe a red blood cell. A red blood cell is a biconcave disk that has no nucleus.
36. Distinguish between antigen and antibody. An antigen that is present on the surface of red cell membranes. Antibodies are proteins that are dissolved in the plasma.
4. Distinguish between oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Oxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin combined with oxygen. Deoxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin that has released its oxygen.
5. Explain what is meant by a red blood cell count. A red blood cell count is the number of red blood cells in a cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood.
37. Explain the basis of ABO blood types. blood types are based on presence or absence of a and b antigens on the red blood cells membranes. Their presence or absence is determined by heredity. Type A - antigen A Type B - antigen B Type AB - antigen A and B Type O - neither antigen A nor B
38. Explain why a person with the blood type AB is sometimes called a universal recipient. Because blood type AB lacks both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, an AB person can receive blood of any type.
39. Explain why a person with blood type O is sometimes called a universal donor. People w/ type O blood lack antigens A and B, which allows transfusion into persons with blood of any other type.
40. Distinguish between Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood. Rh-positive blood is when the red blood cell membrane has Rh antigens (most importantly antigen D) present. Rh-negative blood lacks the Rh antigens.
41. Describe how a person may become sensitized to Rh-positive blood. A person may become sensitized to Rh-positive blood by receiving a transfusion.
Created by: supersophie



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