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NAU A&P 19

Respiratory System

Phases of Respiration: Pulmonary Ventilation, External Respiration, Respiratory Gas Transport or Respiratory Exchange, Internal Respiration
Pulmonary Ventilation is also known as: Breathing
Air Sacs Alveoli
Exchange of air between the atmosphere and the air sac (alveoli) of the lungs Pulmonary Ventilation
Where gases exchange at the cellular level, Oxygen diffuses from the air sacs into the blood and Carbon Dioxide diffuses from the blood into the air sacs to be eliminated. Ex: Asthma, COPD, emphysema External Change of Gases or External Respiration
Gases are carried via the blood to and from the lungs and tissues Respiratory Gas Transport
Occurs at the tissue level when the blood carrying oxygen drops of an oxygen load to the oxygen starving tissues and picks up a load of carbon dioxide for elimination. Ex: Necrotic tissue problems, circulation Internal exchange of gases or Internal Respiration
A passageway of the Respiratory system, is divided by the nasal septum into 2 spaces Nasal Cavities
Function of Nasal Cavities To filter, warm, and moisten air through hair and mucus.
Fingerholes covered in cilia and mucus that cleans the air as it brings it in. External Nares
Increases the surface area to maximize sensory input, like little shelves that increase space. Has air turbulence. Smells will acclimate within this area Nasal Conchae
Three types of Nasal Conchae: Superior, Middle and Inferior Nasal Conchae
Is separated from the oral cavity by the palate. Also known as the Eustachian tube. Allows communication from the nasal cavity to the air. Internal Nares
Palate is made up of: 4 Bones, 2 Maxillae and 2 palatine, Anterior part is 2/3 Hard. Posterior part is 1/3 Soft
Where the palatine and maxillae bones meet Cribiform Plate
Name all passageways of the Respiratory system: Nasal Cavities, Sinuses, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles and Lungs
Passageway which is also resonating chambers for the voice. These are like cul de sacs, first line of defense for the respiratory system. Sinuses
Name the sinuses: Paranasal, Frontal, Maxillary, Sphenoidal and Ethmoidal sinuses
Sinuses below frontal bone Frontal sinuses
Sinuses above the upper teeth, can cause severe teeth pain when swollen Maxillary sinuses
Sinuses below sphenoid bone, can cause pounding headaches Sphendoidal Sinuses
Sinuses below ethmoid bone Ethmoidal Sinuses
Throat, common passageway for food and air, attachment site for lymphatic tonsils Pharynx
Makes up the Pharynx area: Internal nares, Nasopharynx, Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx
Separates the nasal cavity and the oral cavity Palate
Allows communication from the nasal cavity to the air Internal Nares
Where the pharyngeal tonsils are attached Nasopharynx
Another name for the pharyngeal tonsils Adenoids
Contains the palatine tonsils and lingual tonsils locates at the base of tongue Oropharynx
Where the palatine tonsils are located At the end of the soft palate
Area of the pharynx above the epiglottis Laryngopharynx
Voice box area located between the pharynx and the trachea Larynx
Located in the larynx: Thyroid, Epiglottis and Vocal Folds
Hyline cartilage shield located anteriorly. Known as Adam's apple Thyroid
Is the flap above the Glottis. Protects the superior opening to the larynx. Determines if food or air and send to the correct passageway Epiglottis
Mucosal membrane modification, which vibrates as air passes over them through a slit. True vocal cords. Vocal Folds
Vocal folds are thin and stretched Higher Pitch of Voice
Vocal folds are relaxed and thicker Lower Pitch of Voice
Windpipe, extends from the inferior portion of the larynx to the upper part of the chest where it meets the bronchi. Lined with cililated mucosa Trachea
Primary bronchus, the left and right dividing brances Bronchi
Hypersensitive ridge between the 2 areas responsible for the cough reflex Carina
The organs in which gas exchange takes place, consists of 5 lobes. Lungs
Left lung has how many lobes? 2
Right lung has how many lobes? 3
Top of the lung is called? Apex
Bottom of the lung is called? Base
The base rests on which organ Diaphragm
This splits into Secondary bronchus and Tertiary bronchus Primary bronchus
Is also known as the Lobar bronchus, has 2 branches for the left lung Secondary Bronchus
Is also known as the Segmental bronchus, has 3 branches for the right lung Tertiary Bronchus
Smallest passageways in the lungs Bronchioles
Cluster of air sacs which have single squamous epithelial cell thick walls. Actual site of gas exchange Alveoli
Name the parts of the Alveoli: Alveolar Ducts and Alveolar sacs
Space that contains the lungs contained within the thoracic cavity. Lung Cavity
Also known as diaphragm, subdivided by the mediastinum. Lung Floor
Assists with breathing by lifting up the rib cage to allow for air expansion. Intercostals
Bi-layer sac consisting of fluid that covers the lungs Pleura
Lines the walls of the thoracic cavity. Parietal Pleura
Covers the lungs Visceral Pleura
Pulmonary Ventilation consists of: Inhalation/Inspiration, Exhalation/Expiration, Compliance
Active phase requiring a drawing in of air into the lungs, diaphragm contracts and drops, external intercostals contract and elevate the rib cage. Inhalation/Inspiration
Passive phase as air is expelled from the lungs, diaphragm relaxes and elevates, external intercostals relax and lowers the rib cage. Exhalation/Expiration
Ease with which the lungs and thorax is expanded during inhalation. The ease in which you can breathe. Compliance
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities: Tidal Volumes (TV), Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV), Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), Residual Volume (RV), Vital Capacity (VC), Dead Space Volume
The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs with each breath during normal breathing Tidal Volumes (TV)
The amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume. Ex: Spirometry where you breathe in as much as you can for a test. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
The amount of air that can forcibly be exhaled after the tidal expiration, over and above. Ex: Spirometry where you exhale as much as you can. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
The air left in the lungs after the most complete expiration. Keeps lungs from collapsing and keeps form of the lungs. Residual Volume (RV)
The total amount of exchangeable air. Equals the sum of all measurable amounts. TV+ IRV+ ERV Vital Capacity (VC)
Air that remains in the respiratory tract and never makes it to the alveoli Dead Space Volume
Areas in charge of respiration: Medulla Oblongata and Pons
Rhythmicity center which extends throughout the length and is responsible for the depth of breathing. Medulla Oblongata
Pontine respiratory group responsible for the basic rhythm of breathing Pons
Name what makes up the Pontine Respirator group: Pneumotaxic and apneustic centers
Factors that affect breathing or gas exchange Actual gas exchange or Diffusion, gas transport in blood, Abnormal Ventilation
The movement of molecules from an area in which they are in a higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion or Gas Exchange
2 gases transported in the blood to the lungs and vice versa Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Breakdown of Carbon Dioxide eliminated from where in the body by the blood and exhaled in respiration 10% via Plasma, 15% via Combinations with protein portions of hemoglobin and plasma, 75% via iconic version (bicarbonate) formed when CO2 is dissolved in blood fluids from aerobic respiration of glucose
Respiration breakdown equation: CO2 (carbon dioxide)+ H2O (water)= H2CO3 (Hydrogen ions and Carbonic Acid)+ HCO3 (bicarbonate ion)
Makes up abnormal ventilation: Hyperventilation and Hypoventilation
Deep and rapid respiration resulting in altered blood pH, leading to dizziness and tingling. Ex; Ischemic effect in tissues. Hyperventilation
Insufficient amount of air entering the alveoli. Ex: Sleep Apnea Hypoventilation
Name the results of inadequate breathing: Cyanosis, Hypoxia, Hypoxemia, Suffocation
Bluish tinged skin. Is a symptom of diseased states Cyanosis
Lower than normal levels of oxygen, overall lower level. Ex: heart condition and emphysema Hypoxia
Lower than normal oxygen concentration in arterial blood. Ex: systemic situation. Hypoxemia
No breathing at all Suffocation
Explain the breathing pathway from the nose: External Nares-Nasal Cavity-Nasal Conchae-Internal Nares-Nasopharynx-Oropharynx-Laryngopharynx-Epiglottis-Larynx-Vocal Folds-Trachea-Carina-Primary Bronchus-Lungs-Secondary Bronchus-Tertiary Bronchus-Terminal Bronchioles-Alveolar Sacs-Alveoli-Bloodstream
Explain the breathing pathway from the mouth: Oropharynx-Laryngopharynx-Epiglottis-Larynx-Vocal Folds-Trachea-Carina-Primary Bronchus-Lungs-Secondary Bronchus-Tertiary Bronchus-Terminal Bronchioles-Alveolar Sacs-Alveoli-Bloodstream
Created by: FKrouse