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A&P 1 CH 9-11

Dr. Cutler SU-Articulation+Motion-Muscle Tissue-Muscular System

articulation/arthrosis point of contact between bones, cartilage, or teeth
arthology study of joints
joint stability ligaments + interosseous membranes
connective tissues restrictive + elastic
classes of STRUCTURAL joints (connective tissue) fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
classes of FUNCTIONAL joints (movement) synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis
synarthrosis immoveable-epiphyseal growth plate
amphiarthrosis slightly movable-pubic symphysis
diarthrosis freely movable
fibrous joints these area all synarthrotic (immovable)
suture fused skull bones, immovable
syndesmosis wrist and ankle with slight movement
gomphosis tooth and socket connection
fibrocartilage pad grows inside joint cavity-knees + tmj
synovial joints diarthrotic-joint cavity, fibrous capsule, ligaments
gliding plane joint between the nasal bones of the foot and the carpal bones of the wrist
hinge joint between the trochlea of humerus and the trochlear notch of ulna at the elbow, knees, and fingers
pivot joint head of radius and radial notch of ulna or odontoid prowess of axis and atlas
condyloid joint between the distal arm and wrist bones and between the distal leg and ankle bones
saddle joint between the trapezium of carpus and metacarpal of thumb
ball and socket joint between head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone
osteoarthritis wear and tear on cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis pannus
gouty arthritis uric acid build up
lyme disease dear tick; bullseye rash
ankylosing spondylitis fusion if vertebrae
flexion decrease angle of 2 bones
extension increase angle of 2 bones
lateral flexion side bending
aBduction away from midline
aDduction to the midline
rotation turn on a axis
pronation palm down
supination palm up
eversion sole of foot outward
inversion sole of foot inward
circumduction form a cone (make circle in the air)
dorsiflexion foot and toes up
plantarflextion foot and toes down
skeletal muscle tissue voluntary, striated (striped) moves bones and joints
cardiac muscle tissue involuntary, pacemaker cells, intercalated discs
smooth muscle tissues involuntary, hollow organs (GI tract), blood vessels
properties of muscle tissue - excite responsive to stimulus from nervous system (stretching)
properties of muscle tissue - contract tension created when muscle is stimulated; shortening causes pull on bones or movement
properties of muscle tissue - elastic recoils to resting length after tension is removed
properties of muscle tissue - extends extends when opposing muscle is contracted (flexed)
functions of muscle tissue body movement, posture, temp regulation, storage and movement of materials, support
fascicle bundle of muscle fibers ("belly of a muscle")
muscle fibers another name for a muscle cell
sarcomere contractile unit of a muscle fiber
sarcoplasmic reticulum hollow tubes that stores calcium
ct in muscles encircles each individual muscle fiber, group of muscle fiber and the entire muscle itself
endomysium intermost layer surrounds each muscle fiber
perimysium surrounds fascicles
epimysium outermost layer surrounds entire skeletal muscle
deep fascia separates individual muscles, binds together muscles with similar functions, fills space between muscles
superficial fascia separates muscle from skin
tendon where connective tissue layers MERGE at the end of a muscle, attach muscle to bone
aponeurosis a thin, flat sheet of tendon
origin the less moveable attachment of a muscle, usually promimal
insertion the more moveable attachment of a muscle, usually distal
motor neurons nerve cells that stimulate muscles contraction
axon nerve fiber
neuromuscular junction junction between axon and muscle fiber itself
sarcolemma plasma membrane of muscle fiber, TRANSVERSE TUBULES (T-TUBULES), transmits nerve signal
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) reservoir for calcium ions, TERMINAL CISTERNAE
myofibril long cylinder shaped structures in a skeletal muscle fiber, shorten during muscle contraction
myofilaments make up myofibrils: ACTIN & MYOSIN PROTEINS
actin thin filament, have binding cites for myosin(girl)
myosin thick filament, heads of myosin stick out toward actin, binding site for actin (boy)
troponin bound to actin holds tropomyosin in place so it can cover the myosin binding site
tropomyosin bound to actin, covers the myosin binding site, moves away from actin when she gets a "kiss"
contractile proteins myosin + actin
regulatory proteins troponin + tropomyosin
fascicle organization (muscle pattern) parallel, convergent, pennate, circular
third class lever most common lever
most running injuries involve the knee
Created by: cambridgedavis



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