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Year 10 Genetics

TermDefinition
gene A section of DNA that codes for a particular trait / feature (e.g. eye colour).
alleles Different forms of the same gene. They can be dominant or recessive.
asexual reproduction The creation of a new individual which has DNA from just one parent, to which it is identical.
cell The basic unit of a living thing. It includes a nucleus, which contains the DNA.
chromosome A structure made of DNA and found in the nucleus of cells.
clone An organism produced by asexual reproduction (or cloning) of one parent. It is genetically identical to its parent.
continuous variation When a broad range of measurements are possible for a trait (e.g. height).
discontinuous variation When a trait falls into a particular category (e.g. blood group).
DNA The molecule which carries the genetic information of an organism.
dominant allele The form of a gene which is always shown, even if only one is present. Represented with a capital letter (e.g. ‘H’).
evolution A gradual process of change in the traits of a species over many generations.
fertilisation When a male gamete (sperm) fuses with a female gamete (egg / ovum)
mutation A change in the DNA of an organism. This can make a new allele.
natural selection The process in which individuals which have an advantage in their environment tend to survive and reproduce.
nucleus The part of a cell which contains the DNA (in the form of chromosomes).
pure-bred When an organism has two matching alleles for a gene (e.g. ‘HH’ or ‘hh’).
recessive allele The form of the gene which is only shown when two are present. Represented with a lower-case letter (e.g. ‘h’).
reproduction The creation of a new individual from previously existing individuals.
sexual reproduction The creation of a new individual which has DNA from two parents.
trait A feature controlled by genes (e.g. eye colour).
variation Differences between the individuals of a species.
offspring The next generation of young, resulting from reproduction.
mutagen Any factor which increases the chance of a mutation occurring.
Created by: nztcowen