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What muscles are involved in forced respiration? Abs, Int. costal, Scalenes and sternocleidomastoid
What is the mechanism for inspiration? Vol. increases when diaphragm contracts and ext. intercostals raise ribs
What receptors control the resp rates? Central chemoreceptors, Stretch receptors and the Peripheral chemoreceptors
What do central chemoreceptors do? It monitors the CO2 in the blood
What do the peripheral chemoreceptors do? It monitors O2 and pH
Name the three properties of the lungs that makes it better for ventilation Surface tension, Elasticity, and Lung compliance
What is the purpose of surfactant? Prevent collapse, increases lung compliance and reduce surface tension by reducing the number of hydrogen bonds between water molecules
What is the purpose of the A-a gradient? To measure the difference in alveolar conc. of O2 and arterial conc. of O2
What does the A-a gradient indicate? Cause of hypoxia
What does a raised A-a gradient indicate? A diffusion defect, V/Q mismatch, and a right to left shunt
What is obstructive lung disease? Difficulty exhaling all the air
What is restrictive lung disease? Lungs restricted from fully expanding
What is meant by diffusion capacity? How well lungs are able to extract O2 from inhaled air
What is meant by dead space? Space that is occupied by conducting airways
What initiates respiration in a newborn? Compression and recoil of fluid during birth, CO2 increasing, O2 & pH decreasing, respiratory centres in the medulla stimulated, Decrease in temperature
What happens in old age that causes a decrease in ventilation? Muscle weakness, elastic recoil decreased, chest wall compliance decreased, vital capacity decreased, FEV1 decreased
What receptor does adrenaline act on where, and what does it do? Lungs, Beta 2 receptor that causes bronchodilation
Name the acute responses in response to high altitudes Peripheral chemoreceptors, Suppressed cardio inhibitory centre, and pulmonary vasoconstriction
How does suppressed cardiac inhibitory centre work to increase respiration at high altitudes? By increasing heart rate, O2 uptake increases by pulmonary perfusion
How does pulmonary vasoconstriction help at high altitudes? The right sides of the heart has to generate higher pressures to maintain cardiac output
What are the adaptive responses to high altitudes? Central chemoreceptors, Alkalosis, and the kidneys
How does alkalosis help at high altitudes? 2,3 dorsal respiratory group is stimulated which decreases Hb's O2 affinity and the dissociation curve shifts to the right. This leads to O2 unloading
How does acclimatization occur? Increase of Hb conc. , Blood volume increases, Angiogenesis occurs and Pulmonary arterial BP increases
What is the equation that shows how CO2 is carried in the blood? H2O+CO2 <--> H2CO3<-->H+ + HCO3-
What happens when: Increase of pCO2 Increase of ventilation --> Eliminate CO2 --> Reduces H+ conc. --> pH increase
What happens when: Decrease of pCO2 Decreased ventilation --> CO2 increase --> H+ ions increase --> pH decrease
What happens to pH when: Ventilation increases pH increases
What happens to pH when: Ventilation decreases pH decreases
What happens when [H+] increases? Alveolar ventilation increases
What does the carotid chemoreceptor sense? PCO2
What does the aortic chemoreceptor sense? PCO2 & PO2
What does the central chemoreceptor sense? H+ in CSF
What does CFTR do? It codes for a ABC transporter class ion channel
What does CFTR channel do? It functions as a channel for the movement of Cl-
What occurs during cystic fibrosis? Sticky mucus builds up as a result of the lack of Cl- ions
Created by: lijingsaw
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