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Anatomy II test #2

What type of blood vessels take blood away from the heart? arteries
Path of blood through the major blood vessels away from the heart artery, arterial, capillary, venule, vein
What blood vessel is entirely made up of simple squamous epithelial tissue? Capillary- to allow for diffusion through thin walls of blood vessel
What blood vessel is the site where exchange of gasses takes place? Capillaries
In sympathetic response to skeletal muscles what increases? blood flow
When blood flow increases why must blood vessels vasoconstrict? to increase blood pressure= faster replenishment of oxygen to muscles
Does vasiodialation of smooth muscle tissue increase the diameter of the lumen of blood vessels? yes
In glycolsis a six carbon sugar is split into a three carbon paruvrate, does this process require oxygen? no
What factors will increase resistance in blood vessels? diameter(vasoconstriction), length (longer), and viscosity (thicker)
Holes in a capillary blood vessel are called? Fenestrae
Capillaries with holes are then called? Fenestrated Capillaries
Hormone released by the kidney that increases blood pressure Renin
Is blood pressure higher or lower further away from the heart? lower
What is a key difference in veins and arteries? veins have valves arteries do not
Veins have lower resistance than arteries why? they have a larger diameter internally.
Path of blood flow starting at vena cava: in vean cavas to right atrium, through tricuspid into right ventrical,through semilunar valve to pulmonary arteries, to lungs then returning into left atrium through tricuspid valve into left ventrical, then to aortic semi lunar valve and aorta.
Hormone, secreted by kidneys, used to increase red blood cell production is? Eerythropoietin (EPO)
Why does blood pressure drop when there are less red blood cells in blood? The viscosity is low this causes thin blood= less resistance
Where does the blood come from that enters the right atrium? Superior Vena Cava, inferior vena cava, and coinary veins
Where does the bicuspid valve provide blood flow to? Left atrium to left ventricle
Where does the aortic semi lunar valve take blood to? from left ventricle to aortic arch
Where does the pulmonary semi lunar valve take blood to? from the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk
When oxygen enters the blood and combines with hemoglobin this is then named? oxyhemoglobin
When CO2 released by body cells combines with H20 to form HCO3, what facilitates the bond? carbonic anhydrase
Pace maker of SA node is located where? in right atrium
Path of impulse starting with SA node... SA node, Internodal septum, AV node, Right and left bundle branches, to the purkinje fibers
Where are the right and left bundle branches located? Inter ventricular septum.
What human fetus heart structures are lost after birth? Foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus.
How does blood flow work for a fetus in regards to the ductus arteriosus? the fetal circulation bypasses most of the blood away from the lungs by sending it from the pulmonary artery to the aorta through a connecting blood vessel called the ductus arteriosus.
What shape are red blood cells? biconcave
Can red blood cells reversibly bind oxygen and carbon dioxide? yes
What are the parts to a hemoglobin molecule? heme, globin, iron
Formation of red blood cells Erythropoiesis
Formation of any blood cell (formed elements) Hemopoiesis
Formation of white blood cells Leukopoiesis
Formation of platelets thrombopoiesis
platelets AKA thrombocytes
Red blood cells AKA erythrocytes
White blood cells AKA leukocytes
Platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells all are formed from? Hemocytoblasts- hemopoetic multipotent stem cell
Part of hemoglobin at core of heme iron
Red blood cells are formed in red bone marrow located where? in spongy bone epiphyses
What structure engulfs dead / damaged red blood cells using phagocytosis? macrophage
What happens to heme and globin? Heme- releases iron Globin- broken down into amino acids
What events occur in order to stop bleeding? Vascular spasm, regional decrease in blood pressure, formation of platelet plug
Pile of platelets platelet plug
platelet plug is activated by cullogen fibers
prostacyclin a hormone secreted by endothelial cells that destroys the platelet plug
Ability of white blood cell to leave the blood stream Diapedises
3 Steps of Coagulation 1-Form prothrombin activator substance that will convert prothrombin to thrombin 2- thrombin converts fibronogen to fibrin 3-fibrin forms a mesh around platelet plug.
fibrinolysis process of breaking down the fibrin / clot.
A blood clot is surrounded by fibrin
Molecule that digests fibrin/ plasmin
A blood type has why type antigens? A
Ia Ia is an example of.... homozygous blood type
neutrophils- most numerouse WBC, 2X size of WBC, 6 hour life span, 3-6 lobe nucleus, population increases when there is an acute bacterial infection.
eosinophils- 2-4% of WBC pop, same size neurtophils, appear redish, biohead (two lobe) nucleus, function to attack parasites and provide enzymes- life span 8-12 days
basophils produce histamines-inflammatory response, unknown life span, hepanin-anticoagulant
Monocytes largest size of WBC, 3-8% of pop. live several months, can differenciate into macrophages.
lymphocytes most located in lymph nodes, 30% of WBC pop, two types- T-lymphocytes- defend against virus, and B-lymphocytes- differentiate into plasma cells that produce anti-bodies
First step of platelet plug formation Collegen bind to platelets
Created by: lindsayhk