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BIO202 CHAPT 14 15

RIO Salado Marieb. Sexual Reproduction

Female orgasm is required for conception. False
Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle. False
The diamond shaped area between the anus and the clitoris in the female is the vulva. False
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only. False
The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium. True
Failure to attain erection is called impotence. True
The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize the urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse. True
The female hormone corresponding to ICSH is FSH. False
The first sign of puberty in female is budding breasts. True
The process by which sperm are deposited into the vagina is called: Coitus
A Pap smear involves removal of cells from the: cervix of the uterus
The layer of simple epithelium covering the surface of the ovary is the: Germinal Epithelium
The opening between the cervical canal and the uterine cavity is called the: internal os
Which of the follwing glands are responsible for 60% of synthesis of semen? The seminal vesicles
The most important risk factor for testicular cancer is nondescendent testicles
Final maturation of sperm cells occurs in the: epididymis
The contancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through: Mitosis
The ability of the sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to: peristalic contraction
The male urethra serves the urinary system only. False
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only. False
The stage in meosis where chromosmal exchange takes place is telephase. False
The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium. True
Ovulation occurs at the end of the ovarian cycle. False
By 72 hours after fertilization, the egg has divided into more than 160 cells and is called the morula. False
The first week of gestation is called the embryonic period. False
Fertilization occurs while the egg is still in the ovarian follicle. False
Freshly deposited sperm is not capable of penetrating the oocyte. True
The first major event in organogenesis is the development of the gut. False
Growth hormone is responsible for the integrity of the corpus luteum. False
The two hormones responsible for initiating labor is thyroxine and human chorionic thyrotropin. False
Implantation begins six days after ovulation. True
Leads to the formation of the first cell of the new individual. Fertilization
Extra embryonic membrane that develops from the trophoblast and forms part of the placenta. Chorion
Embedding of the blastula in the uterine wall. Implantation
Leads to the establishment of the three primary germ layers. Gastrulation
Protective water-filled sac surrounding the embryo. Amnion
Structure in humans that is the structural base for the umbilical cord; solid waste disposal in nonplacental animals Allantois
Site of early blood cell production and site from which progenitors migrate to reach genital ridges. Yolk sac
Leads to the development of the morula and then a blastocyst. Cleavage
The placenta and its attached fetal membranes are collectively called the afterbirth. True
Milk ejection or let-down is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy? Oxytocin
Human placental lactogen initiates labor False
The result of polyspermy in humans is: a non functional zygote
Which of the following is not usually considered a teratogen? Aspirin
Surfactant production in the premature infants is rarely a factor in providing normal respiratory activity. False
The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made of a contribution from mother and fetus. Which portion is form the fetus? chorion, OR umbilicus, OR yolk sac, OR amnion? Chroion
The surface cells of the inner cell mass become: a structure called the embryonic disc, OR one of the fetal membranes, OR the primitive streak, OR the notochord? the primitive streatk
Of the three germ layers, the mesoderm forms more body parts. True
The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the eighth week. True
The embryo is directly enclosed and protected by the amnion. True
Implantation: signals the trophoblast into two distinct layers
A zygote is usually formed within the uterus False
Implantation involves embedding the blastula to the uterine wall
The "fluid filled, hollow ball of cells" stage of development is the blastocyst. True
Just after implantation occurs, nutrition of the young embryo is provided by: digestion of the endometrial cells
Implantation begins six days after ovulation False
List the two principle functions of the testis. The production of sperm and testosterone.
copulatory organ/penetrating device = penis
site of sperm/androgen production = testes
muscular passage way conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord = vas deferens
transports both sperm and urine = spongy urethra
sperm maturation site = epididymis
location of the testis in the adult male = scrotum
loose fold of skin encircling the glans penis = prepuce
portion of the urethra between the prostate gland and the penis = membranous urethra
empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra = prostate gland
empties a secretion into the membranous urethra = bulbourethral glands
Using the following terms, trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra: seminiferous tubule to rete testis to epididymis to ductus deference
site of fetal development = uterus
"fertilized egg" typically formed here = uterine tube
becomes erectile during sexual excitement = clitoris
duct extending superolaterally from the uterus = uterine tube
copulatory canal = vagina
partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane = hymen
produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone = ovary
fingerlike ends of the fallopian tube = fimbriae
Put the following vestibular-perineal structures in their proper order from the anterior to the posterior aspect clitoris urethral opening vaginal orifice anus
Name the male structure that is homologous to the female structure below: labia majora ____(1)_____clitoris ____(2)____ labia majora = scrotumclitoris = penis
Assume a couple has just consummated the sex act and the male's sperm have been deposited in the woman's vagina. Trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract. vagina to cervix to uterus to uterine tube to peritoneal cavity
The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. Each of these lobes contain one to four ___(1)___ , which converge on a tubular region at the testis hilus called the ___(2)___. seminiferous tubules, and rete testis.
Name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out. 1. endometrium2. myometrium3. serosa or perime
Which of these is sloughed during menses? endometrium
Which contracts during childbirth? myometrium
glands that produce milk during lactation = alveoli
subdivisions of mammary lobes that contain alveoli = lobule
enlarged storage chambers for milk = lactiferous sinus
ducts connecting alveoli to the lactiferous sinus = lactiferous duct
pigmented area surrounding the nipple = areola
releases milk to the outside = nipple
Do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? Why or why not? Yes; there is no anatomic continuity between the ovary and first part of duct system (uterine tube).
What is an ectopic pregnancy, and how can it happen? Implantation of the embryo in a site other than the uterus may occur when the uterine tubes are blocked (prevents passage) or when the egg is "lost" in the peritoneal cavity and fertilization occurs there.
Define ovulation: Ejection of an egg (actually an oocyte) from the ovary.
What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the male penis? This tissue can become engorged with blood, thus making the penis stiff and more effective as a penetrating device.
What is the function of the sterocilia exhibited by the epithelial cells of the mucosa of the epididymis? Absorb excess fluid and provide nutrients to the maturing sperm.
A common part of any physical examination of the male is the palpitation of the prostate gland. How is this accomplished? Through the anterior wall of the rectum.
How might enlargement of the prostate gland interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male? Constriction of the urethra at that point may lead to nonpassage of urine or semen.
Why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity? Viable sperm production requires a temperature slightly lower (94-95 degrees F) than body temperature.
Describe the composition of semen and name all the structures contributing to its formation. Sperm and the alkaline secretions of the prostate, seminal vesicles (also containing fructose), and the bulbourethral glands
Of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline? Buffers the sperm against the acid environment of the female reproductive tract.
What structures compose the spermatic cord and where is it located? Connective tissue sheath (extension of abdominal fascia), ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels. It passes from the scrotal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity.
Using an appropriate reference, define cryptorchidism and discuss its signigicance. Cryptochidism is nondescent of the testes. It is the most significant risk factor for testicular cancer
What is the major hormone produced by the vesicular follicle? estrogen
dyads are visible = both mitosis and meiosis
tetrads are visible = meiosis only
product is two diploid daughter cells = mitosis only
product is four haploid daughter cells = meiosis only
involves the phases prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase = both mitosis and meiosis
occurs throughout the body = = mitosis only
occurs only in the ovaries and testes = meiosis only
provides cells for growth and repair = mitosis only
homologues synapse and chiasmata are seen = meiosis only
daughter cells are quantitatively and qualitatively different from the mother cell = meiosis only
daughter cells are genetically identical to the mother cell = mitosis only
chromosomes are replicated before the division process begins = both mitosis and meiosis
provides cells for the replication of the species = meiosis only
consists of two nuclear divisions, without the chromosomal replication occurring before the second division = meiosis only
primitive stem cell = spermatogonium
haploid = secondary spermatocyte, spermatid, and sperm
provides nutrients to developing sperm = sustentacular cell
products of meiosis II = spermatid
product of spermiogeneisis = sperm
product of meiosis I = secondary spermatocyte
What is the major hormone produced by corpus luteum? progesterone
forming part of the primary follicle in the ovary = primary oocyte
in the uterine tube before fertilization = secondary oocyte
in the mature vesicular follicle of the ovary = secondary oocyte
in the uterine tube shortly after sperm penetration = ovum
The cellular product of spermatogenesis is four ___(1)___ ; the final product of oogenesis is one ___(2)___ and three ___(3)___. The cellular product of spermatogenesis is four spermatids; the final product of oogenesis is one ovum and three polar bodies.
What uterine tissue undergoes dramatic change during the menstrual cycle? endometrium
Describe the process of synapsis. The homologous chromosomes become closely aligned along their entire length.
How does crossover introduce variability in the daughter cells? Where crossovers occur, chromosome breakage occurs and parts are exchanged. This results in chromosomes with different parental contributions.
Define homologous chromosomes: Chromosomes that carry genes for the same traits (One = parental chromosome, the other = maternal chromosome).
Why are spermatids not considered functional gametes? Too much superfluous cytoplasm and nonmotile.
Differentiate between spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Spermatogenesis is the formation of haploid gametes by the male. Spermiogenesis is sloughing off excessive spermatid cytoplasm to form motile functional sperm.
Note the composition and function of each of these sperm structures: acrosome, head, midpiece, and tail. The acrosome is a penetrating device containing digestive enzymes; the head is the genetic region containing the nucleus; the midpiece contains mitochondria which provides ATP, and the tail is composed of contractile filaments designed for locomotion.
The seq. of events leading to germ cell form. in the female begins during fetal devel.By the time the child is born,all viable ooginia have been what?In view of this fact,how does the total germ cell pot. of the female compare to that of the male? They have all been converted to primary oocytes. The total germ cell potential of the female is much smaller than the male and the female total number is predetermined.
The life span of a sperm is very short. What anatomical characteristics might lead you to suspect this even if you didn't know its life span? No cytoplasm (to speak of) in which to store nutrients.
The femal gametes develop in structures called follicles. What is a follicle? A follicle is a structure consisting of a capsule of follicle (or granulose) cells that encloses a developing gamete (oocyte).
What is a corpus luteum? Glandular ovarian structure that produces progesterone. The ruptured vesicular follicle is converted to a corpus luteum.
What is the function of this unequal cytoplasmic division seen during oogenesis in the female? To provide the ovum or functional gamete with adequate nutritional reserves so that it can survive during its journey to the uterus.
What is the fate of the three tiny cells produced during oogenesis? Why? They deteriorate because they lack sustaining cytoplasm with nutrient reserves.
Why does the corpus luteum deteriorate toward the end of the ovarian cycle? Because blood levels of the anterior pituitary hormone LH are extremely low.
When during the female menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikely? Explain why. Any time but the three-day interval (days 14-16) around ovulation (28 day cycle is assumed).
fusion of male and female pronuclei fertilization
solid ball of embryonic cells morula
process of rapid mitotic cell division without intervening growth periods cleavage
combination of egg and sperm zygote
process involving cell rearrangement to form the three primary germ layers gastrulation
embryonic stage in which the embryo consists of a hollow ball of cells blastula
How many days after ovulation is implantation generally completed? 13 or 14
What event in the female menstrual cycle ordinarily occurs just about this time if implantation does not occur? menses
What name is given to the part of the uterine wall directly under the implanting embryo? Decidua basalis
That surrounding the rest of the embryonic structure? Decidua capsularis
Which two organ systems are extensively developed in the very young embryo? nervous system and circulatory system
What is the tissue origin of the placenta? fetal and maternal
ectoderm develops epidermis of skinnervous system
endoderm lining of gutrespiratory mucosaliver, pancreas
mesoderm skeletal muscleskeletonserosa membranecirculatory system
What are the placental barriers that must be crossed to exchange materials? The membranes of the villi and capillary walls of the fetal vascular supply.
Describe the function(s) of the placenta. What embryonic membranes has the placenta more or less "put out of business"? The placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, removes fetal wastes, and produces the hormones of pregnancy. The yolk sac and allantois.
Where in the human uterus do implantation and placentation ordinarily occur? High in the uterus.
Does bodily control during infancy develop in the same direction? Think! Can an infant pick up a common pin (pincer grasp) or wave his arms earlier? Is arm-hand or leg-foot control achieved earlier? Yes. Arm-hand contol occurs before leg-foot control is achieved.
Using an appropriate reference find out what decidua means and state the definition. How is this terminology applicable to the deciduas of pregnancy? That which “falls off” or is subject to periodic shedding. After birth, they slough off and are flushed out of the uterus.
Describe the process of implantation, noting the role of the trophoblast cell. The trophoblast cells overlaying the inner cell mass adhere to the endometrium. The trophoblast cells then secrete enzymes that erode the endometrial lining to reach the vascular supply beneath it.
What is the function of the amnion and the amniotic fluid? The amnion is a protective, fluid-filled sac that surrounds the embryo. The fluid buffer protects the embryo from physical trauma and prevents adhesion formation during rapid growth.
Explain the process and importance of gastrulation. Gastrulation involves the migration, movement, and rearrangement of embryonic cells, so that a three-layer embryo (three primary germ layers) is formed.
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