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NAU A&P 17 & 18

NAU Digestive System, Nutrition & Metabolism

Follow food through Digestive system Ingest-Masticate-Salvate-Deglutition-Oropharynx-Laryngopharynx-Epiglottis-Esophagus-Stomach-PyloricSphincter-Duodenum-Jejunum-Ileum-IleocecalValve-AscendingColon-HepaticFlecture-TransverseColon-SplenicFlecture-DescendingColon-Sigmoid-Rectum-AnalCanal-Anus
Wall of digestive tract inside out Mucous Membrane, Submucousa, Smooth muscle, Serous Membrane, Parietal Peritoneum, Visceral Peritoneum
Makes up Peritoneum: Serous Membrane, Parietal Peritoneum, Visceral Peritoneum
Layer where many cells secrete digestive juices and contains goblet cells Mucous membrane
Layer that contains blood vessels and some of the nerves that help regulate digestive activity. These nerves give the feeling of fullness or emptiness or gassiness. Also the layer targeted for ulcers. Submucousa layer
2 layers of muscle. Inner, circular muscle and outer, longitudinal; creates peristalsis Smooth muscle
Food segment made up of food products plus saliva Bolus
Layer that covers the walls of the cavity Parietal Peritoneum
3 layers that make up the parietal peritoneum Mesentary, Greater Omentum, Lesser Omentum
Cells that secrete mucous Goblet cells
Wavelike movement of a bolus propulsion Peristalsis
Double layered fan like structure which is attached to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity, containing vessels and nerve supply to the intestines Mesentary
Large apron containing fat which comes down over the intestines extending from the lower border of the stomach into the pelvic cavity. Insulation area. Greater Omentum
Smaller membrane extends between the stomach and the liver. Helps keep friction doqn, due to intestinal movements. Lesser Omentum
Covers the individual organ Visceral Peritoneum
Organs of the digestive tract: Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine
Digestion of the mouth: Ingestion, Mastication, Salivation, Deglutition
Digestion of the pharynx: Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Epiglottis
Uvula blocks entrance to the adenoids Nasopharynx
Lingual tonsils, helps move food downward from the mouth and for air moving to and from the nasal cavity Oropharynx
Located below orpharynx, passageway to the esophagus Laryngopharynx
Leaf-shaped cartilage at the base of the laryngopharynx that keeps food from entering the trachea during swallowing. Epiglottis
Hard and soft palate of the mouth Roof of mouth
Blocks the nasal cavity during swallowing. Is shaped like a punching bag. Uvula
Oral cavity, leading to the throat partitioned by the uvula. Mouth
The act of putting food into the mouth Ingestion
Chewing accomplished by the teeth Mastication
Lubricates digestive enzymes Salivation
Breaks down starch into sugar Salivary Amylase
Initiates swallowing Deglutition
Throat, is a doorway guarded by the uvula Pharynx
Muscular passageway to the stomach, perisatlsis pushes food to the stomach Esophagus
Begins at the cardiac or esophageal sphincter and ends at the pyloric sphincter. General shape consists of: lesser curvature, greater curvature, fundus, and rugae. Secretes acid and enzymes. Begins enzymatic digestion of proteins Stomach
Muscular band that regulates the movement of the bolus. Is like a doorway that works as a one way doorway Sphincter
Condition where the stomach protrudes into the sphincter and the sphincter cannot close all the way, allowing food to travel back into the esophagus. Hiatal hernia
Main function is the absorption of nutrients. Mxes food with bile and pancreatic juices. Final enzymatic breakdown of molecules. Small intestines
Storage area for the stomach Fundus
Expanding ridges in the stomach to accommodate food consumption Rugae
Function of the stomach To introduce gastric juices which consists of HCL and Pepsin
Breaks down protein and destroys foreign organisms HCL or Hydrochloric Acid
Enzyme which also digests protein in conjunction with HCL-Hydrochloric Acid Pepsin
Ultimate product of the stomach, combination of the bolus and gastric juices. Is a green slurry. Chyme
Small intestine contains: Pyloric Sphincter, Plicae Circulares, Mucous secreting goblet cells, Enzyme secretions including peptidases
Folds in small intestine that increase the surface of the walls to maximize absorption and do not stretch out with the pressure of chyme. Are permanent ridges. Plicae Circulares
Splits peptides into amino acids which, in turn splits disaccharides into monosaccharides Peptidases and enzyme secretions
Small intestine is broken into: Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum and contains the Ileocecal Valve
Primary function of small intestine: Nutrient absorption tube via villi and microvilli
Small intestine absorbs nutrients through these processes Facilitated diffusion, active transport, diffusion and osmosis
Is broken into 3 sections: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Is a mucous producer and receptacle for digestive juices from liver and pancreas. Main function is nutrient absorption Small intestine
Follows a C-Shaped path. Is the shortest and most fixed portion of the small intestine. Passes anteriorly to right kidney and upper 3 lumbar vertebrae. Duodenum
Proximal 2/5 portion of small intestine. Diameter is usually greater and the wall is thicker in this area. Is more active and more vascular than other areas of the small intestine. Jejunum
This portion of the small intestine is smaller in diameter and has a thinner wall. Is less active then the jejunum. Has more lymph nodes and a higher bacterial population. Ileum
Separator between the small and large intestine. Determines how quickly food moves. Ileocecal Valve
Primary water absorption tube. Whose main function is the absorption of water and electrolytes to form feces. Large Intestine
Large Intestine consists of: Teniae Coli, Ascending colon, Hepatic Flecture, Transverse Colon, Splenic Flecture, Descending Colon, Sigmoid Colon, Rectum, Anal Canal, Anus
Long outer fiber like an elastic band around the colon, is a gathering mechanism, helps give the colon its shape Teniae Coli
Portion of the colon that passes upward on the right side of the abdomen from the cecum to the lower edge of the liver Ascending colon
The 90 degree angle where the ascending colon meets the transverse colon Hepatic Flecture
Portion of the large intestine that extends across the abdomen from right to left below the stomach Transverse Colon
The 90 degree angle where the transverse colon meets the descending colon Splenic Flecture
Portion of the large intestine that passes downward along the left side of the abdominal cavity to the brim of the pelvis Descending Colon
S-shaped portion of the large intestine between the descending colon and rectum Sigmoid Colon
Terminal end of the digestive tube between the sigmoid colon and anus. Regulates the elimination of feces. Rectum
The most distal 2-3 inches of the colon tha opens to the outside as the anus. Holding place for feces. Anal Canal
Inferior outlet of the digestive tube Anus
Disorder where the secretion of the mucousal residue creates a barrier preventing absorption. Can help pain of you massage the colon patient's left to right Colitis
2 accessory organs attached to the ascending colon Vermiform appendix, Cecum the first pouch
Accessory organs of the digestive tract: Salivary glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Teeth and Appendix
Types of Salivary glands: Parotid, Sublingual, Submandibular
Produces saliva and contains lysozymes and salivary amylase Salivary glands
Helps reduce bacterial growth Lysozyme
Salivary glands inferior and anterior to the ear Parotid
Salivary glands below the tongue Sublingual
Salivary glands below mandible Submandibular
Emulsification of fats Digestion
Major activities of the liver: Manufactures bile, Glucose storagehouse, Fat modifier, Vitamin and Fe Storage, Formation of blood plasma proteins and clotting factors, Synthesis of urea Detoxification, Destruction of RBC's and recycling of byproducts
Makes urine yellow and gives strong ammonia smell. Is a nitrogen based waste product Synthesis of Urea
Storehouse for bile which is released when chyme enters the duodenum for the emulsification of fats Gallbladder
Produces inactive forms of enzymes that digest fats, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acid, which are activated later in the intestines Pancreas
These enzymes are produced in the pancreas: Lipase, Amylase, Trypsin, Nucleases
Digests more fats. Produced by pancreas Lipase
Splits proteins into digestible amino acids. produced by pancreas Trypsin
Digests RNA and DNA from nutrient cells, such as beef, chicken RNA and DNA. Nucleases
Metabolism building Anabolism
Metabolism breakdown Catabolism
Without oxygen, occurs in cytoplasm, catabolism of glucose into pyruvic acid and yields 2 ATP Anaerobic Respiration
Without oxygen, occurs in mitochondria, catabolism of pyruvic acid and yields 34-36 ATP Aerobic Respiration
Non-carbon based chemical elements needed for body structure, fluid balance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse conduction and blood clotting Minerals
Carbon based organic substances that function as parts of enzymes or other substances essential for metabolism Vitamins
Is a measurement used to evaluate body size BMI- Body Mass Index
BMI equation Weight in KM divided by Height in Meters squared
Kilograms to pounds conversion 1 Kilogram equals 2.2 pounds
Meters to Inches Conversion 1 Meter equals 39.4 inches
BMI Ranges Underweight= <18.5, Normal weight= 18.5-24.9, Overweight= 25-29.9, Obesity= BMI of 30 or greater
Are the chemical substances supplied from the environment that an organism required for survival. Nutrients
Necessary, indispensable substances required for organismic survival. Essential Nutrients
The study of food and drink requirements of human beings or of any other living organisms for maintenance, growth, activity, reproduction or lactation. Nutrition
Carbohydrates are made up of: Monsaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
One sugar molecules, found in honey and fruits Monsaccharides
Two sugar molecules. Found in table sugar, milk and molasses Disaccharides
Many sugar molecules, found in plant food and pastas Polysaccharides
Organic compounds that include sugars and starches. Short term, high energy sources that are used to power cellular processes Carbohydrates
Organic compounds that include fats, oils and fat-like substances- supply energy for cellular processes and helps build structures such as cell membranes. Also lubricates Lipids
Makes up triglycerides: Saturated Fats, Cholesterol, Unsaturated Fats, Monounsaturated Fats
Is a lipid. Made up of a combination of saturated fats, cholesterol, unsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats Triglycerides
Found in foods of animal origin such as meat, eggs, milk and lard, palm and coconut oils Saturated Fats
Found in liver, egg yolks, whole milk, butter, cheese and meat Chlesterol
Found in seeds, nuts, plant oils and almonds Unsaturated Fats
Found in olive, peanut and canola oils Monounsaturated fats
Slows down cellular processes LDL, Low Density Levels
Speeds up cellular processes HDL- High Density Level
Polymers(organized groups) of amino acids, to form new proteins (enzymes) that control metabolic reactions, regulates water balance, supplies energy, long term provides other building materials Proteins
Milk, meats and eggs that contain adequate amounts of the Essential amino acids to maintain human body tissues, promotes growth and development. Animal based Complete Proteins
Zein in corn which cannot promote human growth, but can help maintain it. Plant based Incomplete Proteins
A condition in which the amount of nitrogen taken in during protein metabolism is equal to the amount excreted Nitrogen Balance
Exists when caloric intake in the form of food equals caloric output from the basal metabolic rate and muscular activities so that the body weight remains constant with the exception of water variations. Energy Balance
Are units of heat that are released by a food source to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1 degree Celcius when the food source is ignited and allowed to oxidize completely. Calories
Organic compounds required in the body in small amounts for normal metabolism Vitamins
Dissolves in fat, storable, food processing usually does not destroy them. Is absorbed can cause toxicity. Fat Soluble Vitamins
Name Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E, K
Found in yellowish plant pigments, carrots, leafy green vegetables, yellow and orange vegetables and fruits, liver, fish, whole milk, butter and eggs. Beta Carotenes, Antioxidants, helps with eyesight Vitamin A
Found in sunlight, milk. Important in preventing rickets which effects bone and tooth development Vitamin D
Found in oils from cereals, seeds and nuts. Maintains cell stability Vitamin E
Found in leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, pork liver, soy oil, tomatoes and cauliflower. Necessary for blood clotting. Vitamin K
Vitamins that dissolve in water. Non-Storable. Water Soluble Vitamins
Name the Water Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins B and C
Name the B Vitamins: Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, B6, Cyanocobalamin and Folic Acid
Found in lean meats, liver, eggs, whole-grain cereals, leafy vegetables and legumes. Oxidizes Carbohydrates Thiamine
Found in meats and dairy products, leafy green vegetables and whole grain cereals. Essential for oxidation of glucose and fatty acids for cellular growth Riboflavin
Found in liver, lean meats, peanut butter and legumes. Essential in glucose oxidation Niacin
Found in meats, whole grain cereals, legumes, milk, fruits and vegetables. Essential to cellular energy release Pantothenic Acid
Found in liver, meat and bananas. Functions in the metabolism of nitrogen containing substances Vitamin B6
Found in liver, meats, milk, cheese & eggs. Part of the coenzymes required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Also important to erythrocyte production and the formation of myelin for nervous system production. Cyanocobalamin
Found in liver, leafy green vegetables, whole grain cereals and legumes. Necessary for the metabolism of certain amino acids and for the synthesis of DNA and normal RBC production Folic Acid
Found in citrus fruits, tomatoes and leafy green vegetables. Necessary for the production of collagen and promotes iron absorption Vitamin C
Inorganic elements that are essential in human metabolism Minerals
Makes up 99.9% of the minerals in the body Major Minerals
Makes up less than .01% of the minerals in the body Trace Minerals
Name the Major Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium
Name the Trace Minerals: Iron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Cobalt, Zinc, Fluorine, Selenium, Chromium
Found in dairy products and fish with bones. Essentia for nerve impulse conduction, muscle fiber contraction and blood coagulation. Calcium
Found in meats, cheese, nuts, whole-grain cereals, milk and legumes. Important role in nearly all metabolic reactions Phosphorus
Found in milk, avacadoes, dried apricots, meats, peanut butter, potatoes and bananas. Helps maintain intracellular osmotic pressure and pH Potassium
Found in meats, milk, eggs and legumes. Particularly abundant in skin, hair and nails. Sulfur
Found in high concentrations of ham, sauerkraut, cheese and crackers. Regulates water and pH, aids in nerve impulse conduction and muscle fiber contraction Sodium
Found in high concentrations in ham, sauerkraut, cheese and crackers. Regulates pH and maintains electrolyte balances Chlorine
Found in milk, non-butter dairy products, legumes, nuts and green leafy vegetables, sour cream, yogurts. Important in providing energy for cellular processes Magnesium
Found in liver and to a lesser extent in lean meats, dried apricots, raisins, prunes, molasses, legumes and enriched whole-grain cereals. Enables RBC's to carry oxygen Iron
Found in nuts, legumes, whole-grain cereals, leafy, green vegetables and fruits. Necessary for normal growth and development if skeletal tissue Manganese
Found in liver, oysters, crabmeat, nuts, whole-grain cereals and legumes. Essential for hemoglobin synthesis, bone development, melanin production and myelin formation Copper
Found in iodized salt. Essential for thyroid hormones T3 and T4 Iodine
Found in liver, lean meats and milk. Necessary for the synthesis of several important enzymes Cobalt
Found in meats, cereals, legumes, nuts and somewhat in veggies. Part of many enzymes involved in digestion, respiration, bone and liver metabolism. Zinc
Found in florinated water and toothpaste. Strengthens tooth enamel Fluorine
Found in lean meats and onions. Participates in heart function. Selenium
Found in lean meats, yeast and liver. Regulates glucose utilization Chromium
Provides sufficient energy (calories), essential fatty acids, essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals to support optimal growth and to maintain and repair body tissues An Adequate Diet
Created by: FKrouse