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US HIST EOC Review

US History Topics for 11th EOC Review

QuestionAnswer
(1) protect social welfare (2) create economic reform (3) promote moral improvement (4) fostering efficiency goals of _______________ Progressivism
1st African-American to be elected President, he defeated Sen. John McCain in 2008. "Yes We Can." "Change We Can Believe In." Pledged to have the most transparent administration in American history and to reform health care. Barack Obama
1st President to travel to China, 1st to travel to Russia, only President to resign from office. Richard Nixon
(18th Amendment) illegal to manufacture, distribute, or possess any type of alcoholic beverage (distilled spirits). The Noble Experiment. Opened the door for organized crime (Al Capone), bootleggers and smuggling. 18th Amendment
(19th Amendment) Women gained the right to vote with the passage in 1920. The Perfect 36, at the time of passage, the number of states was 48. 3/4ths of the states had to pass a proposed amendment before it would be added to the Constitution. Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment. Suffrage Movement
58,000 Americans would lose their lives in the first TV war. The United States wanted to prevent communism from spreading to South Vietnam. Although America inflicted extremely heavy casualties on the enemy, public opinion turned against the war. More bombs were dropped here than on Germany, Japan, and Korea combined. Vietnam War
(1855-1926) Leader of the American Railway Union and supporter of the Pullman strike; he was the Socialist Party candidate for president five times. Eugene V. Debs
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration. Homestead Act
an 1894 railway workers' strike for higher wages that was broken by federal troops, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction. weakened the labor movement Pullman Strike
(1896) Supreme Court decision that created the "separate but equal" doctrine. As a result many states across the South had "Jim Crow Laws." Separate water fountains, restrooms, entrances, segregated seating at movie theatres, etc. Most importantly, segregated schools. Plessy vs Ferguson
(1898) Explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor, Battle of San Juan Hill - Teddy Roosevelt, the Philippines, Cuba, Yellow Fever, US support of Imperialism. Spanish American War
a 1913 law passed by Wilson that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply Federal Reserve Act
(1933 - 1936) FDR's plan to end the Great Depression. 3 major goals were what FDR called his 3 R's - Relief, Recovery and Reform. Many were put back to work, but the Depression was ended when America entered WW II. New Deal
(1950 - 1953) arguably the most brutal war America has ever been involved in - temperatures in excess of - 40◦ F. 54,000 Americans would lose their lives in what became known as "The Forgotten War." The USSR and China would aid North Korea. At the conclusion of fighting the country would remain divided at the 38th Parallel. The war has never officially ended. America still has troops there today. President Truman called this war "A Police Action." Korean War (The Forgotten War)
(1954) Supreme Court decision overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. Supreme Court ruled that all public schools should be desegregated with all deliberate speed. "Separate can never be equal." Brown vs Board of Education
(1957) Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Nine African-American students became the first to attend. Ernest Green was the first to graduate. The 101st Airborne had to be sent in to escort the students to class. Little Rock 9
(1962) he became the 1st African-American to attend Ole Miss. Air Force veteran. James Meredith
(1962) Supreme Court decision that made prayer led by school officials illegal. Engel v. Vitale
(1963) Supreme Court decision - ruled that every defendant in a criminal case must be provided an attorney if they cannot afford it. Gideon v. Wainwright
(1964) This act ended legal segregation in all aspects of society. Senator Albert Gore, Sr. pushed for Civil Rights (Tennessee Senator who refused to sign the Southern Manifesto) Civil Rights Act of 1964
(1966) Supreme Court decision - a suspect must be made aware of his or her rights when arrested. "You have the right to remain silent, anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law..." Miranda v. Arizona
(1973) Supreme Court decision that gave women the right to choose. (abortion) Roe v. Wade
African American who believed Blacks should fight segregation; pushed for higher education opportunities for Blacks to achieve economic independence; helped to found the NAACP W.E.B. Du Bois
African-American who founded the "Back to Africa" movement. Marcus Garvey
after WW II, this country was divided into West & East. The West would be democratic and the east would be communist. The city of Berlin would also be divided. Germany
Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, Anarchy, Leadership. (Causes of...) Causes of the Great War or WWI
Allied powers during World War II. Great Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States, France
America's greatest inventor-light bulb, phonograph, motion picture Thomas Edison
an attempt by the US Government to Americanize the Native Americans. Divided reservations into small family sized plots of land. Dawes Act
attempt to stop patronage and political scandal, required government employees to pass a Civil Service Exam Pendleton Civil Service Act
August 14, 1945 would become known as... (the formal surrender of Japan would actually take place aboard the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945. VJ Day
The Axis powers during World War II. Germany, Italy, and Japan
Banned all Chinese immigrants Chinese Exclusion Act
belief that if one nation fell to Communism, so would those around it. Domino Theory
the belief that the strongest societies will survive. This idea was also used to justify monopolies and trusts. If a business is meant to survive - it will. Laissez - Faire: government should keep out of business limit regulations. Social Darwinism or survival of the fittest
the belief (theory) that it was the right of the United States to occupy all of America from Sea to Shining Sea! Manifest Destiny
a bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers initiative
The bold project to put a man on the moon proposed by JFK. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first men to walk on the moon. "One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Apollo
Brinkmanship - (I called it nuclear chicken!) (1962) U2 spy planes took photographs of Soviet nuclear missiles being placed in Cuba. JFK authorized a naval blockade around Cuba and demanded the missiles be dismantled and removed. The USSR pledged to remove the missiles - the United States removed missiles from Turkey and promised not to invade Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis
Caused by over farming in 1930s Dust Bowl
Causes of_________ were overproduction, Underconsumption, stock market speculation Great Depression
The Census of 1890 announced the official end of the American Frontier (Frederick Jackson Turner) Turner's Frontier Thesis
Civil Rights leader who coined the phrase "Black Power." Leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and later the Black Panthers. Stokely Carmichael
a combination of large companies form an alliance to squeeze out competition. The companies used money to influence members of the US Senate. This led to the passage of the 16th Amendment (Direct election of Senators) Trusts
Communist leader of Cuba who led a successful revolution in 1959. He declared Cuba would become a Communist state. (90 miles from Florida) Fidel Castro
computer industry giant who started Apple Computers, Macintosh, I-Phone, etc. Steve Jobs
Congressman from Tennessee, he became the Secretary of State under FDR and served in that position longer than anyone in American history. He is often called the "Father of the United Nations." He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. Cordell Hull
Court case that established "separate but equal" laws Plessy v Ferguson
created by President Roosevelt's Second New Deal. Provided a pension plan for retired citizens and those who were disabled. Social Security
created by the New Deal to establish confidence in the nation's banks. The government would provide insurance for up to $5,000 FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
created by the New Deal to help with flood control, provide jobs, and cheap hydro electric power to a seven state area. TVA Tennessee Valley Authority
created the Hull House to help the inner-city poor. Provided health care, and education to those in need. Jane Addams
Cuban exiles in the United States were trained by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro and his communist regime. President Kennedy's biggest failure - at the last moment JFK called back the air support and the mission failed. It was an embarrassment for the US. Bay of Pigs
"Day of Infamy" December 7, 1941. Over 1,100 men died aboard the USS Arizona. Pearl Harbor
Desire for military strength. Desires for raw materials/new markets. The U.S needed to expand it's market due to a surplus of goods. Belief in cultural superiority. causes of _________________ Imperialism
developed the air-braking system and alternating current - this allowed power to be sent over long distances. George Westinghouse
developed the food processing industry (meat packing) Gustavus Swift and Philip Armour
distillers conspired with political parties to cheat the U.S. Govt. out of millions of dollars of tax revenue. Citizens would demand reform within the government. Money was going to political parties instead of where it should go. Whiskey Ring
elected President in one of the closest elections in history (2000). He defeated Al Gore (D) in the Electoral College, but lost the popular vote. The state of Florida played a critical role in deciding the outcome. The Supreme Court decision in Bush v. Gore brought the 36 day fight for Florida's 25 Electoral votes to an end. He won the Electoral College 271 to 266. George W. Bush
the federal government was given the power to force local officials to allow African-Americans the right to vote. (literacy tests, poll taxes and grandfather clauses were made illegal) Voting Rights Act of 1965
feelings of hostility for immigrants. It favored people or products that were American. Nativism
The Final Solution - 6 million European Jews and 5 million others would die in Concentration Camps. (Genocide) Holocaust
the first artificial satellite was launched by the USSR on October 4, 1957. As a result the United States began to emphasize science and math in education. NASA was formed. space race
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. Intended to prevent the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade, However, it was initially misused against labor unions Sherman Anti-Trust Act
the first government attempt to regulate business. (1887) required railroads to charge fair rates and to publish those shipping rates. Interstate Commerce Act
Flowering of Africa American art/achievement (Langston Hughes, Louis Armstrong, etc) Harlem Renaissance
founded in 1909 to work for racial equality, led by W.E.B. Debois NAACP
founded the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) believed that African-Americans should fight for equality and demand respect. W.E.B. DuBois
founded the Tuskeegee Institute an all black farming college. He believed that African-Americans would gain economic equality before they would gain social equality. He was the first African-American to dine at the White House (Invited by Teddy Roosevelt) African-American leader Booker T. Washington
gave congress the power to tax people's incomes Sixteenth Amendment
granted women the right to vote in 1920, women's suffrage Nineteenth Amendment
The Great Communicator (1981-1989) He led America to victory in the Cold War, oversaw the largest non-war military buildup in history. Believed in trickle down economics, tax breaks to business - economic growth. He reduced the size of government through Deregulation - Reaganomics. John Hinckley attempted to assassinate him in 1981. Ronald Reagan
Great US president who established national parks and conservation Theodore Roosevelt
Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling Pure Food and Drug Act
(Harlem Renaissance) African-American author who wrote Not Without Laughter and The Weary Blues. Langston Hughes
he invented the telegraph. Samuel F.B. Morse
he invented the telephone and was a pioneer in communication not only for the hearing, but for the deaf and hearing impaired as well. Alexander Graham Bell
he was a wealthy banker - purchased Carnegie Steel and created U.S. Steel. J.P. Morgan
He wrote a book -- By Any Means Necessary "You can't separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom." Black Muslim leader who was assassinated by members of his own group. Believed differently than Dr. King believed in physical violence if necessary. (Nation of Islam) Malcolm X
How did westward expansion affect Native Americans? Railroad tracks took over their land and killed the buffalo supply
idea that the United States should avoid involvement in world affairs. The quote from George Washington inspired this belief, "avoid foreign entanglements. Isolationist
idea that the United States should get involved in world affairs Interventionist
immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, they did not speak English - primarily Catholic. Came for opportunity - jobs, land. New Immigrants
in an attempt to restore trust in the nation's banks, FDR closed all banks for 4 days. Only those banks that were solvent were allowed to reopen. The closures of the banks coupled with the creation of the FDIC were attempts to stop runs on the banks. Bank Holiday
Inventor of Model T automobile and mass production/assembly line Henry Ford
Karl Marx was the father of this type of government - ideally, it would create a classless society. Communism
a late 19th century political movement demanding that people have a greater voice in government and seeking to advance the interests of farmers and laborers Populism
leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) believed in non-violent civil disobedience. Most famous speech, "I have a dream." James Earl Ray assassinated him in 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr
the light bulb is his most famous invention, he also invented the phonograph, and the first motion pictures. Thomas Edison
Location of immigrant inspection in N.Y. Hoovervilles
Massacre of Sioux Indians by US soldiers Battle of Wounded Knee
May 8, 1945 would become known as Victory In Europe ending World War II in Europe against Nazi Germany V-E Day
Military alliance formed by the United States and allies to provide security in the event of an attack by the USSR. NATO
Military alliance formed by the USSR with other communist countries from Eastern Europe. Warsaw Pact
the Montgomery Bus Boycott began in 1955 after she refused to give up her seat. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. became the leader of the boycott. Rosa Parks
name of the military operation in Iraq. Saddam Hussein was overthrown, yet the weapons of mass destruction were never found. Operation Iraqi Freedom
new laws established a new form of government within Indian reservations. Individual tribes were now able to govern themselves. Native Americans could leave the reservation and still retain identity. Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912, The party wanted tariff reduction, women's suffrage, higher corporate regulation and a child labor ban, a federal compensation for workers, and several other platforms. Bull Moose Party
One of the greatest pieces of legislation in American history, this gave veterans the opportunity to go to school, get job training and guaranteed home loans. It also provided loans to those starting a business. GI Bill
Operation Overlord - June 6, 1944 the greatest amphibious invasion in history to that point - A second front designed to liberate Europe would be opened. D-Day June 6, 1944
Operation Torch - 1943, General Patton would lead the Americans to victory and eventually attack what Churchill called the "soft underbelly of Europe." North Africa 1943
overspeculation in the stock market, crop failures, drought, too much credit - buying on time, unemployment, bank failures, tariff barriers, uneven distribution of wealth - middle class very small Causes / Reasons for the Great Depression
owned U.S. Steel and used Vertical integration to monopolize the steel industry. Gave millions to build libraries and schools. Andrew Carnegie
owner of Standard Oil, he used Horizontal Integration to control the oil business John D. Rockefeller
people came to America to escape harsh conditions in their own countries. (Gold Rush, Religious Freedom, Jobs, Land) Immigration
per FDR this Executive Order would place more than 100,000 Japanese Americans into Internment camps. Korematsu v. the United States (1944) the Supreme Court agreed with FDR that American citizens should be protected from possible uprising. Finally, under President Reagan in the 80s the government would apologize and make payments to survivors. Executive Order 9066 (Japanese Internment Camps)
period of time after WW II until the early 1960s, millions of babies were born in the United States. baby boom
photographer who showed the harsh conditions in America's big cities during the Gilded Age. Published a book titled How the Other Half Lives. Jacob Riis
phrase coined by Mark Twain, describes time period between 1865-1900, extravagant wealth (top 5% held 86% of the nations wealth) terrible poverty existed underneath the surface. Gilded Age
phrase coined by Teddy Roosevelt. Reporters who discovered corruption within industry and government organizations. Laws were created and changed because of their work. Muckrakers
pilot who was the first to fly solo nonstop from NYC to Paris. His plane, the Spirit of St. Louis, now resides in the Smithsonian institute. The flight took 33 and 1⁄2 hours! He became a folk hero to America Charles Lindbergh
The plan to put a man into space (United States). John Glenn became the first American to orbit the earth. Mercury
The plan to rebuild Europe after WW II to avoid the spread of communism. The U.S. spent billions in war torn countries. Secretary of State George Marshall felt that stronger countries could avoid falling to communism. Marshall Plan
a policy in which a nation avoids entanglements in foreign wars Isolationism
the policy of extending a nation's power by gaining territories fro a colonial empire Imperialism
political machine that controlled politics in NYC in the late 1800s. Controlled by Boss William Marcy Tweed who was exposed by the political cartoons of Thomas Nast in Harpers Weekly. Nast is the father of the symbols of political parties, the modern image of Santa Claus. Tammany Hall
political movement for the common people. The government should own the railroads. Bimetallism, workers should have an 8 hour workday and better benefits. William Jennings Bryan - Cross of Gold Speech Populism
poor farming practices and a severe drought led to horrible dust storms and left much of the Southern Great Plains in despair. Dust Bowl
President Eisenhower brought this idea from Germany to the United States, originally it was designed for military purposes - quick evacuation of the cities in the event of a nuclear attack. This act transformed America. Interstate Highway Act
President Teddy Roosevelt helped Panama gain independence from Columbia (created a revolution). The United States completed the job that France was unable to finish. This feat greatly increased the power of the Navy by linking the Atlantic and the Pacific. The distance of travel (New York to San Francisco) was shortened by several thousand miles. The United States would now control shipping in the Western Hemisphere. Panama Canal
President with one of the most impressive resumes in American history, (8 yrs. VP, Director of the CIA, RNC Chair, WW II Navy pilot, etc, etc..). Elected President in 1988 - defeated Michael Dukakis. Saw victory in Desert Shield / Storm, and the end of the Cold War. Had the resume, but didn't have the charisma. Lost the Presidency to Bill Clinton in 1992 election. The 92 election pitted him against Clinton (D) and Perot (I). Clinton benefited from the 3 way race winning the Pres. George H. W. Bush
process by which minority group gradually adopts the culture of the majority group Assimilation
process by which people vote directly on a bill referendum
Progressive measure that required U.S. senators to be elected directly by the people rather than by state legislatures Seventeenth Amendment
prohibition- Banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol Eighteenth Amendment
protestants, lighter skin, lighter hair, lighter eyes, came to America from Western Europe - (Great Britain, Germany) in search of religious freedom. Old Immigrants
Reasons US entered WWI German unrestricted sub warfare; Zimmerman note
reporter who exposed illegal actions committed by the Standard Oil Company. Ida Tarbell
The right to vote suffrage
A ritual the Sioux performed to bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land. Ghost Dance
Saddam Hussein (Iraq) invaded the oil rich country of Kuwait. President Bush (41) organized a US led coalition to drive Iraq out of Kuwait by military force. Started January 16, 1991. Operation Desert Storm
the secret project to build an atomic weapon. Manhattan Project
Senator Joseph McCarthy (1950s) fear of Communism - he used fear to gain political power. His tactics destroyed many lives. President Truman announces a plan to investigate Federal Employees for connections to communism. Senator John F. Kennedy challenged McCarthy and his tactics. McCarthyism
"Separate but Equal"/unfair laws Jim Crow laws
shantytowns made from scrap material, wood, metal, etc. Homeless people lived in these during the depression. Hoovervilles
she became the symbol of the working woman during World War II. Women were welders, machinists, fabricators, etc.. Rosie The Riveter
the sleeping car made him a very wealthy man. 1894 Strike resulted in the death of 34 people. George Pullman
(Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) formed in 1954. Provided to less fortunate countries in the area and promised military support if needed. An effort to stop Communism from spreading in Southeast Asia. SEATO
The Soviet Union built a concrete wall around the Eastern communist controlled section of Berlin. The wall became the ultimate symbol of the Cold War. The purpose of the wall was to keep people from escaping to the Western (free) sector of Berlin. Berlin Wall
this (1935) act gave workers the right to join labor unions. A minimum wage was established, and the maximum hours that one could work. Fair Labor Standards Act
this agency employed more people than any other. Workers built roads, bridges, schools, post offices and numerous other public buildings. WPA or work progress administration
this brought women into the workforce, America saw daycare for the first time ever, many people moved to urban areas in search of employment, African-Americans found work in factories. WW II
this day saw the loss of more than 3,000 American lives, the destruction of the World Trade Center, and damage to the Pentagon. The heroic action of passengers aboard flight 93 saved the US Capitol possible destruction. 11-Sep-01
this resolution was passed by Congress giving President Lyndon Johnson authority to escalate U.S. involvement in Vietnam after the USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy were said to have been fired on by North Vietnamese gun boats Gulf of Tonkin
this war between the states (CSA v. USA) promoted the growth of industrialism in the late 1800s (steel, railroads, communication, weapons, mass production of pre-made goods) The Civil War
the turning point of the war in the Pacific, from this point forward the Japanese would be on the defensive. Battle of Midway
the two Japanese cities were destroyed on August 6, 1945 and August 9, 1945 by atomic bombs. The use of these weapons brought about the surrender of Japan. Hiroshima & Nagasaki
United States C-54 cargo planes transported needed supplies into the city of Berlin after Stalin ordered the roadways and waterways into the city sealed off. (food, fuel, medicine, etc.) Berlin Airlift
A United States plan to help Greece and Turkey avoid falling to communism. Within this doctrine, President Truman said America would aid any free people (country) fighting against communism. Truman Doctrine
the United States policy designed to keep Communism from spreading after WW II. Containment
US policy to lend weapons to Allied nations during WWII Lend-Lease Program
We should spread the American culture to the less fortunate. It would provide more jobs, supply raw materials, and provide much needed navy bases. It would also open up new markets for businesses - a strong sense of nationalism. Imperialism (Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines)
What company did the muckraker Ida Tarbell use her skills as a writer and researcher to try and expose as being ruthless? Standard Oil Trust/Company
What did the sixteenth amendment change in American Society? gave congress the right to levy income tax. You could get more money from the wealthy.
What happened during the Sacco and Vanzetti trail and why did they did not receive a fair trial? They were blamed for robbing a shop, and they were immigrants.
What major change ocurred as a result of the Depression? People depended on the govt.
What was the consequence of bankers making risky investments with depositor's savings? They had no money to give to people when they wanted to withdraw money.
What was the main factor in over speculation and the crash of the stock market in 1929? Buying stocks on margin (credit)
What was the major incident that basically turned Americans from feeling neutral about WW1 and joining the allies? The sinking of the Lusitania
What was the outcome of the Scopes Trial? Proven guilty and was fined $100, it is still illegal to teach evolution in schools
Where Japanese Americans were placed after Pearl Harbor attack Internment camps
William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer published sensational stories and used this form of journalism to promote the Spanish-American War. Yellow Journalism
young men from 18 to 25 were employed to build parks, playgrounds, clear trails, build dams, and plant trees. The site where Powell High School sits was a camp for this agency during the Great Depression. CCC or Civilian Conservation Corps also known as Roosevelt's "tree army"