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BIO202 RIO Marieb

Rio Salado A & P Chapt Urinary Flash

The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretesIt is also a major homeostatic organ because it maintains nitrogenous wastes.the electrolyte, water or fluid, and acid-base or pH balance of the blood.
Voiding or emptying the bladder is called micturition.
Voiding has both voluntary and involuntary components. The voluntary sphincter is the external urethral or external sphincter.
smooth membrane; tightly adherent to the kidney surface = Renal Capsule
-portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts = Medulla
-portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures = Cortex
-superficial region of kidney tissue = Cortex
basinlike area of the kidney, continuous with the ureter = renal Pelvis
a cup-shaped extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid = minor calyx
area of cortical tissue running between the medullary pyramids = renal column
site of filtration formation = glomerulus
primary site of tubular reabsorption = proximal convoluted tubule
secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption = distal convoluted tubule
structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis = collecting duct
blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells = peritubular capillaries
its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane = glomerular capsule
Trace a drop of blood from the time it enters the kidney in the renal artery until it leaves the kidney through the renal vein. Renal Artery to segmental artery lobar artery interlobar artery arcuate artery interlobular artery afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent arteriole peritubular capillary bed interlobular vein arcuate vein interlobar vein
Trace the anatomical pathway of a molecule of creatinine (metabolic waste) from the glomerular capsule to the urethra. Note each microscopic and/or gross structure it passes through in its travels. Name the subdivisions of the renal tubule. Glomerular capsule proximal convoluted tubule loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule collecting tubule papillary duct minor calyx major calyx renal pelvis ureter bladder urethra
What is the function of the fat cushion that surrounds the kidneys in life? Helps to anchor the kidneys to the dorsal body wall and cushions it against blows.
Define ptosis: Dropping of the kidney(s) to a more inferior position in the abdominal cavity.
Why is incontinence a normal phenomenon in the child under 1 1/2 to 2 years old? What events may lead to its occurrence in the adult? Mus. control over the vol sphincter has not yet been achieved in very young children. In adults, incontinence may be caused by emo. prob., bladder irritability, increased pressure on the bladder, nerve or spinal cord injury, and other reasons.
Explain why the glomerulus is such a high-pressure capillary bed. Also, explain how does its high-pressure condition aid its functions of filtrate formation? It is both fed and drained by arterioles (which are high pressure vessels compared to venules), and the afferent arteriole has a larger diameter than the efferent arteriole.
What structural modification of certain tubule cells enhances their ability to reabsorb substances from the filtrate? Their possession of dense microvilli (especially the PCT cells).
Explain the mechanism of tubular secretion and explain its importance in the urine formation process. Tubular secretion is the process of moving substances from the tubule cells or from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubule filtrate. It is important for adjusting pH and eliminating substances not already in the filtrate.
People on a strict diet to lose weight begin to metabolize stored fats at an accelerated rate. How does this condition affect blood pH? It would become acidic (decreased pH).
Define juxtaglomerular apparatus: Macula densa cells of the DCT and granular juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole that play a role in regulating the role of filtrate formation and system blood pressure.
What is important functionally about the specialized epithelium (transitional epithelium) in the bladder? The cells have the ability to move over one another as the bladder fills, thus decreasing the bladder wall thickness and increasing the internal bladder volume.
Which of the following regions of the nephron may be found in the renal medulla? Loop of Henle
Indicate which term(s) does not belong in the follwing grouping: Peritubular, Capillaries, Reabsorption, Glomerulus, and low-pressure vesses Glomerulus
Blood vessels entering the kidneys and attempting to reach the cortex travel through these extensions of the cortex called Renal Columns
Indicate which term does not belong in the following grouping: Nephron, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tuble and collecting duct. nephron and collecting duct.
The functional unit of the kidney is the renal column. False
The terminal portion of the urinary system is the urethra. True
The entire responsibility of urine formation lies in the nephron. True
The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct. False
Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH True
Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer True
Two components of the nephron are: renal corpuscle and renal tubules
The nephron is considered to be the functional unit of the kidney
The basic functions of the nephrons are: 1. osmosis, 2. filtration, 3. diffusion, 4. secretion, 5. reabsorption 2, 4, and 5 are correct
The efferent arteriole of a juxtamedullary nephron may form long loop-shaped vessels called Vasa Recta
Which structure below in NOT a part of the renal tubules? Glomeruli
Particles smaller than 3 nanometers are passed into the filtrate. True
During the micturition reflex, there is increased activity of the sympathetic neurons that control the smooth muscle of the bladder. False
The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder. False
The kidney consumes about 15% of all oxygen used by the body at rest. False
Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis. False
Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along the osmotic gradient. True