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A & P 1

Chapter 1

anatomy study of the the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts (Body parts)
physiology study of the functions of living organisms and their parts (how the body works)
homeostasis means staying the same! The balance the body tries to maintain by keeping the internal enviroment the same
cells smallest "living" units of structure and function in our body
tissues an organization of many similar cells that act together to perform a common function
organs larger and more complex than tissues. An organ is a group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that they can together act as a unit to perform a special function
anatomical position erect or standing posture with the arms at the sides and the palms turned forward.
supine Remember "Supine on the spine" body is lying face upward
prone body lying face down
scientific method systematic approach to discovery
hypothesis a resonable guess based on previous informal observations or tested eplanations
theory or law a hypothesis that has gained a high level of confidence
experimentation the testing of a hypothesis
superior toward the head, upper or above
inferior toward the feet, lower or below
anterior front or front of ( remember A before P)
posterior in back of
Ventral toward the belly also meaning front in place of anterior
dorsal toward the back ( think dorsal fin of a shark is on the back)
medial toward the midline of the body ( think medial, mid)
lateral away from midline ( think Later, away from now)
proximal toward or nearest the trunk of the body, or nearest the point of origin of one of its parts ( proximal = approximately = almost)
distal away from or farthest from the trunk or the point of origin of a body part ( think distal, distance)
superficial nearer body surface ( letters in superficial can spell surface)
deep farther away from body surface
sagittal lengthwise plane running from front to back. Divides the body into right and left sides
frontal or coronal is a lengthwise plane running from side to side. it divides the body or any of its parts into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
transverse horizonal plane that divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower
ventral cavity 1 of 2 body cavities. Organ containing space in the anterior or front trunk of the body that includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
dorsal cavity (think dorsal fin on back) houses things in the back - cranial and spinal cavities
Thoracic Cavity think chest area. Middle of is mediastinum. The rest is right and left pleural cavities
diaphragm dome shaped and muscular. Most important for breathing. Separates the thoracic and the addominal cavities
upper abdominopelvic region right and left hypochondriac regions and the epigastric region divides across the 9th rib cartlidges
middle abdominopelvic region right and left lumbar and the umbilical region. Lies between 9th rib cartlidge and above the hip bone
lower abdominopelvic region right and left iliac ( or inguinal)and hypogastric region
cranial cavity space inside the skull that contains the brain. The cranial cavity is in the dorsal cavity
spinal cavity contains the spinal cord. The spinal cavity is in the dorsal cavity.
axial head, neck and torso or trunk of the body
appendicular refers to upper and lower extremities ( think appendages)
abdominopelvic cavity word to describe the single space containing the abdominal and pelvic organs
mediastinum cavity midportion of the thoracic cavity. It contains trachea, heart and blood vessels
dissection cutting technique used to separate body parts for study
effector responding organ for example voluntary, involuntary muscles, the heart and glands
feedback loop highly complex and integrated communication, control network,classified as negative or positive
negative feedback loop most important and numerous homestatic control mechanisms. Causes the level of a variable to be changed in the direction opposite to the intial stimulus
Positive feedback loop causes the level of variable to be pushed futher in the direction of original deviation, causing an amplification of the original stimulus
atrophy wasting away of tissue; decrease in size of a part sometimes referred to as disuse atrophy.
Created by: 4gotn1