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Anatomy Final Exam

Anatomy The study of the structure of the body
Physiology The study of the functions of the body
Microscopic Very small
Macroscopic Very big
Disease Illness
Pathology Study of disease
Etiology Cause of a disease
Idiopathic Disease with unknown cause
Nosocomial Contracted from a medical setting
Communicable A disease that can be passed from one person to another
Contagious Spread from one person to another by direct and indirect contact
Abdomin/o Abdomen
Aden/o Gland
Angi/o Vessel
Arthr/o Joint
Cardi/o Heart
Col/o Colon
Cyan/o Blue
Cyt/o Cell
Derm/o Skin
Erythr/o Red
Gastr/o Stomach
Glyc/o Sugar
Hemat/o; Hem/o Blood
Hepat/o Liver
Hist/o Tissue
Hydr/o Water
Leuk/o White
Mamm/o Breast
Nephr/o Kidney
Neur/o Nerve
Oste/o Bone
Path/o Disease
Phag/o To swallow
Phleb/o; Ven/o Vein
Rhin/o Nose
a; an Without
Acro- Extremities
Brady- Slow
Dia- Through
Dys- Difficult
Electro- Electronic
Endo- Within
Epi- Upon or over
Hyper- Above normal
Hypo- Below normal
Macro- Huge
Micro- Small
Peri- Around
Sub- Under or below
Tachy- Fast
-al; -ic Pertaining to or related to
-algia Pain
-cyte Cell
-ectomy Surgical removal
-gram Record
-graphy Process of recording
-ist One who specializes
-itis Inflammation
-megaly Enlargement
-ologist One who studies
-ology The study of
-oma Tumor
-otomy To cut into
-ostomy Surgical hole/ opening
-pathy Disease
-penia Decrease; lack of
-phobia Fear of
-plasty Surgical repair
-scope To examine
A&P Anatomy and Physiology
ACLS Advanced Cardiac Life Support
bid Twice a day
BM Bowel movement
BP Blood pressure
CA Cancer
CAD Coronary artery disease
CBC Complete blood count
CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CVA Cerebral vascular accident
CXR Chest X-ray
Dx Diagnosis
GI Gastrointestinal
ICU Intensive care unit
IM Intramuscular
IV Intravenous
MI Myocardial infarction
npo Nothing by mouth
po Orally
prn As needed
q Every
SOB Shortness of Breath
STAT Immediately
tid Three times a day
ER/ED Emergency room/ emergency department
Homeostasis Equilibrium of the body
Negative feedback loop The body tries to reverse something that happens (When a pathogen enters the body and the body reacts by inducing throwing up and diarrhea to eliminate the pathogen)
Positive feedback loop The body tries to amplify something that happens (Contractions during child labor increasing in order to get it over with faster)
Signs Objective of a disease
Symptoms Subjective of a disease
Diagnosis What a qualified professional names your symptoms
Standard precautions Gown, gloves, mask (Used all across the board)
Anatomical position Face forward, arms straight out with palms facing forward, legs shoulder length apart, and feet forward
Supine Lying on back
Prone Lying on stomach
Trendelenburg Laying on back with feet higher than head
Fowler's Sitting at least at a 45 degree angle
Sagittal Body plane dividing body into left and right
Coronal Body plane dividing the body into posterior and anterior
Transverse Body plane that divides the body into superior and inferior
Superior/ cranial Towards the head
Inferior/ caudal Away from the head
Anterior/ ventral Toward the front
Posterior/ dorsal Toward the back
Medial Towards the middle
Lateral Away from the middle
Proximal Close to point of reference
Distal Away from point of reference
Dorsal cavity Contains the brain and spinal cord
Cranial cavity Contains the brain
Spinal cavity Contains the spine
Ventral cavity Contains the front portion; divided by the diaphragm to make thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Thoracic cavity Chest; contains the trachea, esophagus, lungs, heart, bronchi, major blood vessels, thymus gland, lymph nodes, nerves
Pleural cavity Contains the lungs
Pericardial cavity Contains the heart
Abdominopelvic cavity from diaphragm to pelvis
Abdominal cavity Contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestines, and most of the large intestines
Pelvic cavity Contains end of large intestines, anus, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
Right upper quadrant Contains liver, right kidney, gallbladder, colon, and pancreas
Left upper quadrant Contains stomach, left kidney, spleen, colon, and pancreas
Right lower quadrant Contains appendix, colon, small intestines, ureter, major vein and artery to right leg
Left lower quadrant Contains colon, small intestine, ureter, major vein and artery to left leg
Cephalic region Pertains to the head
Cervical region Pertains to the neck
Dorsal region Pertains to the back
Thoracic region Pertains to the chest
Abdominal region Pertains to the stomach
Pelvic region Pertains to the hips
CT scan Combined x-rays for better imaging of many different angles
MRI Uses magnetic field and radio waves for imaging of organs and tissues
Ultrasound Using sound waves for imaging
What is the integumentary system and what does it do? Skin; protects the body from invading pathogens
What is the muscular system and what is its purpose? Muscles; Helps with movements and involuntary movements
What is the skeletal system and what is it for? Bones; Gives the body form and protects internal organs
What is the circulatory system and what does it do? Heart and blood vessels; Pumps oxygenated blood from the heart to the body and back to the heart to be sent to the lungs
What is the nervous system and what is it for? Brain and nerves; Sends and interprets signals from stimuli to react)
What is the lymphatic system and what is its purpose? Immune system; protects the body from pathogens that have already invaded the body
What is the respiratory system and what does it do? Lungs; Inhale and exhales air to help oxygenate the body
What is the endocrine system and what does it do? Pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and adrenal gland; bodily secretions
What is the urinary system and what is its purpose? Kidneys, bladder, ureters; excretes toxins through the urine)
What is the reproductive system and what does it do? Ovaries, testes, uterus, etc.; organs used to reproduce)
Cranium Head
Vertebrae Spine
Clavical Collar bone
Scapula Shoulder blade
Sternum Chest bone
Humerous Upper arm
Radius Lower arm on thumb side
Ulna Lower arm on pinky side
Carpals Wrist
Metacarpals Hand
Phalanges Fingers and toes
Pelvis Hip bones
Femur Upper leg
Patella Knee cap
Tibia Shin bone
Fibula Bone in calf
Tarsals Ankle
Metatarsals Foot
Ball and socket Joint that allows the extremity to move in a circular motion
Hinge Allows the joint to move in one direction
Fibrous Immovable joint
Cartilaginous Partially movable
Synovial Freely movable
Flexion Decreasing angle of a joint
Extension Increasing angle of a joint
Rotation Moving in a circle
Adduction Moving a body part closer to the midline
Abduction Moving a body part farther from the midline
Circumduction Flipping a body part over
Pronation Turning a body part to lay on the bottom (hand to palm)
Supination Turning body part to lay on the top (hand to back)
Inversion Turning a body part toward the midline (ankle to stretch inner side)
Eversion Turning a body part away from the midline (ankle to stretch outer side)
Opposition (Touching thumb to middle finger)
Scoliosis "S" shaped curvature of teh spine
Spina Bifida Gap in spinal cord from birth thal allows a sac-like structure of teh spinal cord to protrude from its normal placement
Lordosis Excessive inward curvature of the spine
Kyphosis Hunchback
Arthritis Inflammation of joints
Osteomalacia Softening of bones
Osteoporosis Weakening of bones
Cardiac muscles Muscle that involuntarily makes the heart beat
Smooth muscle Muscle that controls involuntary actions
Skeletal muscle Muscle that allows for voluntary body movements
Muscular Dystrophy Genetic; No cure: Damaed muscle fiber; Weakness, immobility, imbalance
Cerebral Palsy Congenital; muscle tone decreases during childbirth or pregnancy; Affects posture, balance, and motor functions
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva Soft tissue hardens and becomes bone-like forever; movement is permanently restricted
Dermatomyositis Autoimmune disease harming connective tissues and weakening muscles
Myasthenia Gravis Autoimmune disease; Breakdown of neuromuscular junction that causes weakness and fatigue
Compartment Syndrome Blood vessels, nerves, and muscles get compressed which leads to paralysis and tissue death
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Neurodegenerative disease; Lou Gerhig's; Neurons get destroyed which forfeits voluntary muscle movements; Leads to paralysis
Mitochondrial Myopathies Mintochondria (Powerhouse of cells) gets damaged; muscle weakness, deafness, blindness, arrhythmias, and heart failure; Seizures, dementia, vomiting, droopy eyelids can result
Rhabdomyolysis Rapid destruction of muscles; muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness
Polymyositis Degenerative and inflammatory; Effects systemic connective tissue causing weakness and muscle atrophy
Fibromyalgia Chronic and debilitating disease; pain, fatigue, tenderness, and stiffness; Genetic; Effects women more than men
Myotonia Muscles relax slowly from stimulation or contraction
Myofascial Pain Syndrome Chronic pain disorder; Burning sensation on trigger points; joint stiffness, muscle knots, and sleeplessness from pain
Rotator Cuff Tear Can be repaired by surgery
Cramps Pain and tightness
Sprains and Strains Twist or pull on muscles; Swelling, pain, difficult movement
Talipes Flat feet due to weakening foot arch muscles
Tendonitis Inflammation of the tendons
Epidermis Outer layer of the skin; Keeps pathogens out of the body
Dermis Middle layer of skin; Contains connective tissues, hair follicles, and sweat glands
Hypodermis Innermost layer of skin; Contains fat and connective tissue
Rule of nines Assesses percentage of burns; Each area counts as 9
Vitiligo Loss of pigmentation
Necrotizing Fasciitis Warm red skin and sore muscles
Cutaneous Candidiasis White or red; usually in skin folds
Carbuncle Red, irritated lump under skin
Cellulitis Bacteria enters the skin; red, sore, and spreads quickly; Warm and tender to the touch
Hypohidrosis Minimal perspiration; dizziness and flushed appearance, muscle cramps or weakness, feeling overly hot
Impetigo Common in children; rash on face
Sympathetic nervous system "Fight or flight"; Gets the body ready to react to stimuli
Parasympathetic nervous system "Feed or breed"; Calms the body down after a stimulus has gone
Multiple sclerosis Immune system damages nerves
Fibromyalgia Widespread muscle pain and tenderness
Paralysis Usually caused by spinal cord damage; inability to move; Severity depends on location of injury
Alzheimer's Disease Degenerative disease; Destroys memory and other important mental functions
Guilain Barre Syndrome Immune system attacks the nerves
Temporal lobe function Speech understanding
Occipital lobe Visual understanding
Frontal lobe Cognitive functions and control of voluntary movements
Parietal lobe Temperature, taste, touch, and movement interpretation
Traumatic brain injury Brain dysfunction due to trauma
Cerebral Palsy Congenital disorder affecting movement, muscle tone, or posture
Parkinson's Disease Over stimulation of nerves that causes rigidity of gait and tremors
Ventilation Supplying air to the lungs; usually by artificial means
Respiration Breathing
Aspiration Foreign particles such as food being inhaled into the lungs
Asphyxia Suffocation; When the body becomes unconscious or dies due to lack of oxygen
Pulse oximetry measuring the amount of oxygen through a machine that hooks onto the finger
Normal pulse range 60-100 bpm
Normal respiration range 12-18
Normal blood pressure range 90/60 mm/Hg to 120/80 mm/Hg
Normal temperature range 97.9 to 99.1 degrees Fahrenheit
Emulsificaiton Breakdown of fat
Chyme What food is called when it has been emulsified by the stomach
Bile Produced in the gallbladder and helps to break down food to absorb nutrients
Created by: Martinafulgieri



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