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Bones Pectoral Girdl

Bones and Markings of the Pectoral Girdle

Question/TermAnswer/Definition
Clavicle Slender doubly curved bones that extend horizontally across the superior thorax.
Sternal End Medial end of the clavicle, attaches to the sternal manubrium.
Acromial End Lateral end of the clavicle, articulates with the scapula at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint.
Conoid Tubercle Located on the posterior side of the clavicle, near the acromial end, provides attachment for a ligament that attaches to the first rib.
Function of the Clavicle Hold the scapulae and arms out laterally, when clavicle is fractured the entire shoulder collapses medially.
Breakage of the Clavicle Not very strong, can break when outstretched arms break a fall, curves in bone make it fracture anteriorly so as not to damage the subclavian artery that runs just deep.
Scapulae Thin, triangular flat bones, lie on the dorsal surface of the ribcage between ribs 2-7.
Superior Border Shortest and sharpest border of the scapula.
Medial Border Border of the scapula that parallels the vertebral column, also known as the vertebral border.
Lateral Border Border of the scapula that abuts the armpit, ends superiorly in the glenoid cavity, also known as the axillary border.
Glenoid Cavity Shallow fossa that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint.
Superior Angle Where the superior scapula border meets the medial border.
Lateral Angle Where the superior scapula border meets the lateral border.
Inferior Angle Where the medial and lateral scapula borders meet.
Scapula Spine Located on the posterior of the scapula, ends laterally in the acromion.
Acromion Enlarged triangular projection at the end of the scapular spine, articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle to form the acromioclavicular joint.
Coracoid Process Projects anteriorly from the superior scapular border, helps anchor the bicep, bounded medially by the suprascapular notch and laterally by the glenoid cavity.
Suprascapular Notch Located on the medial edge of the coracoid process, allows for nerve passage.
Humerus Largest, longest bone of the upperlimb, articulates with the scapula at the shoulder and with the radius and ulna at the elbow.
Head of the Humerus Located at the proximal end, fits into the glenoid cavity.
Anatomical Neck of the Humerus Slight constriction located immediately inferior to the head.
Greater Tubercle of the Humerus Located just inferior to the anatomical neck and lateral to the lesser tubercle, site of attachment for rotator cuff muscles.
Lesser Tubercle of the Humerus Located just inferior to the anatomical neck and just medial of the greater tubercle, attachment site for rotator cuff muscles.
Intertubercular Sulcus Groove separation the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus, guides guides a tendon of the bicep to its attachment point at the rim of the glenoid cavity.
Surgical Neck Located just distal to the tubercles, so named because it is the most frequently fractured part of the humerus.
Deltoid Tuberosity Located about midway down the shaft of the humerus on the lateral side, attachment site for the deltoid muscle.
Radial Groove Located near the deltoid tuberosity, runs diagonally down the posterior aspect of the shaft marking the course of the radial nerve.
Trochlea Condyle at the distal end of the humerus, shaped like an hour glass tipped on its side, medial to the capitulum, articulates with the ulna.
Capitulum Condyle located at the distal end of the humerus, ball-like shape lateral to the trochlea, articulates with the radius.
Humerus Epicondyles Medial and lateral, flanks the trochlea and capitulum, provides muscle attachment sites, ulnar nerve runs behind the medial epicondyle, responsible for the "funny bone".
Supracondyle Ridges Located directly above the humerus epicondyles medially and laterally.
Coronoid Fossa Located superior to the trochlea on the anterior surface of the humerus, allows the ulna to move freely when elbow is flexed.
Olecranon Fossa Located superior to the trochlea on the posterior surface of the humerus, allows the ulna to move freely when the elbow is extended.
Radial Fossa Located lateral to the coronoid fossa receives the head of the radius when the elbow is flexed.