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Anatomy and Physiology Terms

Anatomy Structural composition of the body
Physiology Study of the function of the body
Anatomic Position Standing erect, feet parallel, arms at sides, eyes and palms facing forward
Supine Laying on back, face up
Prone Laying on stomache, face down
Frontal (Coronal) Divides vertically, front and back
Midsagittal (Medial) Divides vertically, left and right equally
Sagittal Divides vertically left and right
Transverse Divides horizontally, top and bottom
Anterior (Ventral) Front of body
Posterior (Dorsal) Back of Body
External (Superficial) On or near surface of body
Internal (Deep) Within or near the center of body
Medial Middle of body
Lateral Side of body
Palmar Palm of hand
Plantar Sole of foot
Proximal Nearest center of body, origin, point of attachment
Distal Farthest from center of body, origin, point of attachment
Superior (Cranial) Higher, above, towards the head
Inferior (Caudal) Lower, beneath, away from head
Cranial Cavity Brain
Spinal Cavity Spine
Thoracic Cavity Lungs
Abdominal Cavity Stomache, Liver, Pancreas, Kidneys
Pelvic Cavity Bladder, Reproductive organs
Pericardial Cavity Heart
Homeostasis Body in complete balance and equilibrium
Metabolism Sum of all physical and chemical reactions necessary to sustain life
Catabolism Large, complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones for absorption
Anabolism Complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones.
Cell Smallest unit of an organism
Cytology The study of cells
Histology The study of tissues
Tissue A mass of similar cells that work together to perform a special function
Organs Composed of multiple tissues
Body Systems Structures and organs that are related to one another and function together
Integumentary System Skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands
Epidermis Outermost, thinnest layer of skin
Dermis Intermost, thickest layer of skin
Subcutaneous Connective fat and tissue
Muscular System Provides movement, heat
Skeletal System Gives the body shape and support
Nervous System Controls and coordinates the body
Endocrine System Hormone production
Digestive System Absorption of nutrients
Reproductive System Gamete production, means to create a new human
Urinary System Filters and eliminates waste products
Respiratory System Exchange of gases CO2 and O2
Circulatory System Transportd oxygen and nutrients, carries away waste
Lymphatic System Immune system
Cardiovascular System Heart, blood and blood vessels
Epicardium Outermost layer of heart
Myocardium Middle layer of heart
Endocardium Intermost layer of heart
Atria Top right and left chambers of the heart
Ventricle Bottom right and left chambers of the heart
Right Atrioventricular Valve Tricuspid Valve
Left Atrioventricular Valve Bicuspid/Mitral Valve
Right Semilunar Valve Pulmonary Valve
Left Semilunar Valve Aortic Valve
Systole Contracting phase of the cardiac cycle
Systolic Top numerical value of blood pressure
Diastole Relaxing phase of the cardiac cycle
Diastolic Bottom number of blood pressure
Heart Rate Number of beats per minute (BPM)
Blood Pressure Pressure or tension exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels
Normal Adult Blood Pressure 120/80
Arteries Carries blood away from the heart
Ventricles Returns blood to the heart
Capillaries Bridge that connects the arterioles and venules
Tunica Externa (Adventia) Outermost layer of an artery or vein
Tunica Median Middle layer of an artery or vein
Tunica Interna (Intima) Intermost layer of an artery or vein
Lumen Hollow space where blood flows within a vein or artery
Antecubital Fossa Area where the major veins are located for venipuncture
Median Cubital Vein Middle vein for venipuncture
Cephalic Vein Vein that runs along the thumb side of the arm
Basilic Vein Vein that runs along the pinky side of the arm
Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
Leukocytes White Blood Cells (WBCs)
Thrombocytes Another word for platelets, aids in coagulation
Plasma 90% water, 10% protien
Rh Factor Used to determine the absence or presence of the D antigen (determines blood type)
Agglutination Clumping of RBCs
Serum Clear-like fluid that contains no fibrinogen
Buffy Coat White substance comprised of WBCs and platelets
Whole Blood Blood in its same form as in the bloodstream
Hemostasis Stoppage of bleeding (Coagulation)
Hemorrhage Excessive bleeding
Hemolysis Breakdown or destruction of RBCs
Components of a CBC RBC, WBC, Platelet, HGB, HCT
Cytoplasm Fluid that fills the cell
Universal Blood Type Donor O-
Universal Blood Type Recipient AB+
Hematoma Another word for bruise
Myocardial Infarction Another term for a heart attack
Nucleus Center of a cell, powerhouse
Created by: Bonavita_M