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Med Term zCH14

Med Term zCH14 The Reproductive System

pen/i penis
phall/i penis
primary functions of penis sexual intercourse & urination
orch/o testicles
orchid/o testicles
test/i testicles
test/o testicles
primary functions of testicles produce sperm & the hormone testosterone
oophor/o ovaries
ovari/o ovaries
primary functions of ovaries produce ova (eggs) & female hormones
salping/o fallopian tubes
primary function of fallopian tubes catch the mature ovum (egg) & transport it to the uterus. Also site of fertilization.
hyster/o uterus
metr/o uterus
metri/o uterus
uter/o uterus
primary function of uterus protects 7 supports the developing child
vagin/o vagina
colp/o vagina
primary function of vagina used for sexual intercourse, acts as channel for menstrual flow, & functions as the birth canal
placent/o placenta
primary function of the placenta exchanges nutrients & waste between the mother & fetus during pregnancy
cervic/o cervix
-gravida pregnant
gynec/o woman, female
hyster/o uterus
mast/o breast
men/o menstruation, menses
-para to give birth
-pexy surgical fixation
genitalia organs of reproduction & their associated structures
external genitalia reproductive organs located outside of the body cavity
internal genitalia reproductive organs protected within the body
perineum external surface region in both males & females btw the pubic symphysis & coccyx
male perineum this tissue extends from the scrotum to the area around the anus
female perineum this tissue extends from the pubic symphysis to the area around the anus
primary function of male reproductive system produce sperm & deliver them int the female body so that 1 sperm can unite w/ single ovum (egg) to create new life.
external male genitalia penis & scrotum, which contains 2 testicles
internal male genitalia includes remaining structures of male reproductive system
scrotum sac-like structure that surrounds, protects, & supports testicles. Suspended from pubic arch behind penis & lies btw thighs
testicles testes; 2 small egg-shaped glands that produce sperm. Develop w/in abdomen of the male fetus & normally descend into scrotum before or soon after birth.
seminiferous tubules where sperm are formed in each testicle
epididymis coiled tube at upper part of each testicle. Tube runs down length of testicle, then turns upward toward the body. Narrows to form tube vas deferens
spermatic cord extends upward from epididymis & attached to each testicle. Each cord contains vas deferens + arteries, veins, nerves, & lymphatic vessels required by each testicle
sperm spermatozoa; male gamets
semen whitish fluid containing sperm that is ejaculated through the urethra at the peak of male sexual excitement.
ejaculate to expel suddenly
spermatogenesis process of sperm formation
-genesis creation
Ideal temperature for sperm formation 93.2 deg F. Scrotum aids in maintaining this temp by adjusting how closely it holds the testicles to the body
where are sperm formed? in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles
where do sperm go after seminiferous tubules of testicles move into epididymis where they become motile & are temporarily stored.
motile capable of spontaneous motion
where do sperm go after epididymis travel upward into the body & enter the vas deferens. The seminal vesicles & prostate gland add their secretions to form semen
penis male sex organ that transports sperm into the female vagina.
penis composed of 3 columns of erectile tissue
erection during sexual stimulation, the erectile tissue fills w/ blood under high pressure, which causes swelling, hardness, & stiffness
penile & phallic adjectives that both mean relating to the penis
glans penis aka head of penis; sensitive region located at tip of penis
foreskin aka prepuce; retractable double-layered fold of skin & mucous membrane that covers & protects the glans penis
vas deferens ductus deferens; long, narrow continuations of each epididymis. Structures lead upward & eventually join urethra.
seminal vesicles glands that secrete a thick, yellow substance to nourish the sperm cells. Forms 60% of the volume of semen. These glands located @ base of urinary bladder & open into vas deferens as it joins urethra
ejaculatory duct begins @ vas deferens, passes through prostate gland & empties into urethra. During ejaculation, a reflex action caused by these ducts, semen passes through urethra, which exits body via penis
prostate gland lies under bladder & surrounds the end of the urethra in region where vas deferens enters urethra
what does prostate do during ejaculation secretes thick, alkaline fluid into semen that aids the motility of the sperm
motility ability to move
2 bulbourethral glands Cowper's glands; located just below prostate gland. 1 on either side of urethra & open into urethra
pre-ejaculate during sexual arousal, bulbourethral glands secrete this fluid to help flush out any residual urine or foreign matter in urethra. Also lubricates urethra for sperm. this fluid can contain sperm.
urethra passes through penis to outside of body. Serves as both reproductive & urinary systems in male.
urologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of genitourinary system of males & urinary system of females.
genitourinary refers to both the genital & urinary organs
balanitis inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision.
phimosis narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so it cannot be retracted (pulled back) to expose the glans penis. Can be present @ birth or become apparent during childhoood
erectile dysfunction ED, impotence; inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection.
flaccid limp; penis that is not erect
Peyronie's disease penile curvature; form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection
priapism painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is either not accompanied by sexual excitement or does not go away after sexual stimulation has ended. Can be caused by meds or blood-related disorders
premature ejaculation male reaches climax too soon, usually before or shortly after penetration of the female
andropause ADAM; marked by decrease of male hormone testosterone & usually begins in late 40s & progresses gradually over several decades.
androgen male sex hormone
-pause stopping
cryptorchidism undescended testicles; developmental defect in which 1 or both testicles fail to descend into their normal position in the scrotum
crypt hidden
anorchism congenital absence of one or both testicles
epididymitis inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by spread of infection from urethra or bladder
hydrocele fluid-filled sac in scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles
-cele hernia or swelling
spermatocele cyst that develops in the epididymis & is filled w/ milky fluid containing sperm.
testicular cancer cancer that begins in testicles. Most common cancer in American males ages 15-34. Highly treatable when diagnosed early
testicular torsion sharp pain in scrotum caused by twisting of the vas deferens & BV's leading into testicle
torsion twisting
testitis orchitis; inflammation of one or both testicles
varicocele knot of widening varicose veins in one side of scrotum
vericose veins abnormally swollen veins
azoospermia absence of sperm in semen
zoo life
normal sperm count 20 to 120 million or more sperm per milliliter mL of semen
oligospermia low sperm count; common cause of male infertility; sperm count below 20 million/mL.
hematosphermia presence of blood in the seminal fluid. Can be caused by infections of seminal vesicles, prostatitis, urethritis, or urethral strictures
sperm count sperm analysis; testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine volume + #, shape, size, & motility of sperm
testicular self-exam self-help step in early detection of testicular cancer by detecting lumps, swelling, or changes in skin of scrotum
circumcision surgical removal of foreskin of penis. Optional procedure is usually performed w/in few days after birth
orchidectomy orchiectomy; surgical removal of one or both testicles
orchiopexy repair of an undescended testicle. Endoscopic surgery performed on infants before age 1 to move testicle into normal position
varicocelectomy removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele
sterilization any procedure rendering an individual (male or female) incapable of reproduction
castration bilateral orchidectomy; surgical removal or descruction of both testicles
vasectomy male sterilization procedure in which small portion of the vas deferens is surgically removed. Prevents sperm from entering the ejaculate but does not change the volume of semen created by body
vasovasostomy vasectomy reversal; procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male.
sexually transmitted diseases STDs; infections caused by either bacteria or virus that affects both males and females. Commonly spread through intercourse or other genital contact.
sexually transmitted infections STIs; infections caused by either bacteria or virus that affects both males and females. Commonly spread through intercourse or other genital contact.
ophthalmia neonatorum antibiotic ointment placed in each eye of newborn w/in 1 hour of birth to prevent transmission of any sexual diseases.
chlamydia caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis; most commonly reported STD in USA. Highly contageous & requires early treatment w/ antibiotics
chlamydia in females can damage reproductive organs; even if symptoms mild or absent, serious complications can cause irreversible damage, including infertility
chlamydia in males 1 of the causes of urethritis
bacterial vaginosis BV; a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in vagina.
problems of bacterial vaginosis can cause complications during pregnancy & increased risk of HIV if exposed; symptoms can be: discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burining.
genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 & 2. Symptoms include itching or burning before appearance of lesions on genitals or rectum.
problems of genital herpes highly contagious, even when visible lesions are not present; antiviral drugs ease symptoms & can suppress future outbreaks but no cure
genital warts caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV); highly contagious. Vaccine available to prevent spread.
genital warts in female infects external genitalia, cervix, vagina. can be vaccinated through age 26
genital warts in males infects urethra, can be vaccinated through age 21
gonorrhea highly contagious condition caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
gonorrhea in women affects the cervix, uterus, & fallopian tubes. Can affect mouth, throat, & anus.
gonorrhea in men affects the urethra by causing painful urination & an abnormal discharge. Can affect mouth, throat, & anus.
human immunodeficiency virus HIV; transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse w/ infected partner
syphilis caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum, has many symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from other STDs. highly contagious & is passed from person to person through direct contact w/ chancre.
chancre sore caused by syphilis
VDRL type of blood test that can detect syphilis before lesions appear
RPR blood test for syphilis
thrichomoniasis trich; infection caused by parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
trichomoniasis in women thin, frothy, yellow-green, foul-smelling vaginal discharge.
trichomoniasis in men often do not have symptoms, but when do they include painful urination or a clear discharge from penis
primary function of female reproductive system creation & support of new life
ovaries produce mature eggs to be fertilized by the sperm
uterus provides environment & support for the developing child
after birth, breasts produce milk to feed the child
external female genitalia located posterior to mons pubis
mons pubis rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis
vulva pudendum; labia, clitoris, Bartholin's glands, & vaginal orifice
labia majora & labia minora vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalia & the urethral meatus
urethral meatus external opening of the urethra
clitoris organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus & vaginal orifice.
Bartholin's glands produce mucous secretion to lubricate vagina. 2 small round glands located on either side of the vaginal orifice.
vaginal orifice exterior opening of the vagina
orifice opening
hymen thin mucous membrane that partially covers the vaginal orifice opening & can be torn either during 1st instance of intercourse or other activity. Can be absent in woman who has not been sexually active.
breasts made up of fat, connective tissue, & mammary glands. Each is fixed to the overlying skin & underlying pectoral muscles by suspensory ligaments
mast/o breast
mammary glands lactiferous glands; milk producing glands that develop during puberty
lactiferious ducts milk ducts; carry milk from mammary glands to nipple
-iferous carrying or producing
nipple breast milk flows through this, which is surrounded by the dark-pigmented area known as areola
areola dark-pigmented area around the nipple
internal female genitalia located ____ & protected by ______ located w/in pelvic cavity, protected by bony pelvis
ovaries pair of small, almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus
follicle a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg). There are thousands of these sacs on the inside surface of the ovaries
ova eggs; female gametes; immature & present at birth; after puberty, one ovum matures & is released each month.
ovaries also produce sex hormones ___ & ____ estrogen & progesterone
fallopian tubes aka uterine tubes; qty 2, extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near but not attached to an ovary.
infundibulum funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary
fimbriae fringed, finger-like extensions of the fallopian tube opening. Role is to catch the mature ovum when it leaves the ovary.
each month a fallopian tube... carries a mature ovum from ovary to the uterus; they also carry sperm upward from uterus toward descending mature ovum so fertilization can occur
uterus formerly known as womb; pear-shaped organ w/ muscular walls & a mucous membrane lining filled w/ rich supply of blood vessels
uterus location btw urinary bladder & rectum & midway btw sacrum & pubic bone
anteflexion normal position of uterus, the body is bent forward
ante- forward
flex bend
parts of the uterus fundus, corpus, cervix
uterus fundus bulging, rounded part above entrance of fallopian tubes. b/c it rises during pregnancy, measuring the fundal height in relation to pubic bone helps determine baby's growth.
uterus corpus aka body of the uterus; middle portion
uterus cervix aka cervix uteri; lower, narrower portion that extends into the vagina.
within the cervix cervical canal, which ends at the cervical os at the vagina
3 major layers of tissue uterus is composed of perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium
perimetrium aka uterine serosa; tough, membranous outer layer of uterus tissue
membranous pertaining to a thin layer of tissue
metri uterus, fallopian uterus
myometrium muscular middle layer of uterus tissue
endometrium inner layer of uterus tissue & it consists of specialized epithelial mucosa that is rich in blood vessels
mucosa referring to mucous membrane
vagina muscular tube lined w/ mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body
menstruation aka menses; normal periodic discharge of the endometrial lining & unfertilized egg from uterus.
avg menstrual cycle 28 days
4 phases of menstrual cycle menstual, postmenstrual, ovulatory, premenstrual
menarche beginning of menstruation, begins after the maturation that occurs during puberty. Avg age in US 12
men menstruation
-arche beginning
menopause normal termination of menstruation in women during middle age, considered to be confirmed when woman has gone 1 yr w/o period
perimenopause designates the transition phase btw regular menstrual periods & no periods at all.
perimenopause length & symptoms can last 10 yrs, changes in hormones cause symptoms: irregular menstrual cycles, hot flashes, mood swings, & disturbed sleep.
ovulation release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of one of the ovaries that happens on approx. the 13th or 14th day of woman's menstrual cycle.
after egg is released from ovulation... it is caught up by the fimbriae of the fallopian tube. Wave-like peristalic actions move the ovum down the fallopian tube towards the uterus.
after ovum has been released, the ruptured follicle enlarges, takes on a yellow fatty substance, and becomes the corpus luteum.
corpus luteum secretes the hormone progesterone during the 2nd half of the menstrual cycle. This maintains the growth of the uterine lining in preparation for the fertilized egg.
if ovum not fertilized corpus leuteum dies, & endometrium lining of uterus sloughs off as menstrual flow occurs.
if ovum is fertilized the corpus luteum continues to secrete the hormones required to maintain pregnancy
coitus aka sexual intercourse, copulation; male ejaculates approx 100 mil sperm into female's vagina. Sperm travel upward through vagina, into uterus, & into fallopian tubes
conception occurs when a sperm penetrates & fertilizes the descending ovum. This union, which is beginning of new life, forms single cell known as a zygote.
after fertilization occurs in fallopian tube, the zygote travels to.... the uterus, where it is implanted.
implantation embedding of the zygote into the lining of the uterus
embryo from implantation through 8th week of pregnancy, the developing baby is known as this
fetus from 9th week of pregnancy to time of birth, the baby in utero is known as this.
In utero within the uterus
fet unborn child
multiple births when more than 1 egg passes down fallopian tube when sperm are present, the fertilization of more than 1 egg possible.
fraternal twins result from fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells. These develop into 2 separate embryos
identical twins formed by the fertilization of a single egg by a single sperm that divides to form 2 embryos. Each of these twins receives exactly the same genetic info from parents.
multiples term to describe a birth involving more than 2 infants.
chorion thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo. It contributes to the formation of the placenta
placenta temporary organ that forms w/in uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, & waste products btw mother & fetus w/o allowing maternal blood & fetal blood to mix. Barrier does not prevent chemicals or drugs from reaching fetus
afterbirth after delivery of newborn, the placenta & fetal membranes are expelled as this
amniotic sac aka amnion, bag of waters; innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in uterus.
amniotic cavity surrounds the developing newborn & is fluid-filled space btw the embryo & amniotic sac.
amnionic fluid aka amniotic fluid; the liquid that protects the fetus & makes possible its floating movements.
umbilical cord tube that carries blood, oxygen, & nutrients from the placenta to the developing baby. Transports waste from fetus to mother's excretory system. Cord cut after birth, before placenta delivery.
navel belly button; forms where umbilical cord was attached to fetus
gestation approx 280 days (40wks); period of development of baby in mother's uterus. "At term" after this period of development
pregnancy gestation; the condition of having a developing baby in uterus
trimesters approx 13 weeks each, division of pregnancy length into 3 parts
due date estimated date of confinement EDC; calculated from 1st day of last menstrual period
LMP last menstrual period
confinement old-fashioned term describing the time when a period of rest for the mother followed childbirth
quickening 1st movement of the fetus in the uterus that can be felt by the mother. Usually 16th - 20th week of preganancy
Braxton Hicks contractions intermittent painless uterine contractions that occur w/ increasing frequency as pregnancy progresses.
viable fetus is this when it is capable of living outside of the uterus. Depends on developmental age, birth weight, & lungs of fetus
antepartum final stage of pregnancy just before onset of labor
nulligravida woman who has never been pregnant
nulli- none
-gravida pregnant
nullipara a woman who has never borne a viable child
primi- first
primipara woman who has borne one viable child
-para to give birth
multiparous woman who has given birth 2 or more times
-parous having borne one or more children
labor and delivery aka childbirth, parturition; 3 stages: 1)dilation, 2)delivery of baby, 3) expulsion of the afterbirth
1st stage of labor also longest; gradual dilation & effacement of the cervix & the rupture of the amniotic sac.
effacement process by which the cervix prepares for delivery as it gradually softens, shortens, & becomes thinner
fetal monitoring use of an electronic device to record the fetal heart rate & the maternal uterine contractions during labor
2nd stage of labor begins when cervix is dilated to 10cm, is delivery of the infant. As uterine contractions become stronger & more frequent, mother pushes to expel child through birth canal
birth canal vagina
cephalic presentation crowning; describes when the baby is coming head first & head is seen at vaginal opening.
3rd stage of labor expulsion of the placenta as the afterbirth
postpartum after childbirth
puerperium time from delivery of placenta through approx the 1st 6wks after delivery. After, most changes in mother's body due to pregnancy have been resolved & body reverted to nonpregnant state
lochia postpartum vaginal discharge that typically continues for 4-6wks after childbirth. Consists primarily of blood/ mucus.
uterine involution return of uterus to its normal size & former condition after delivery
involution return of an enlarged organ to normal size
colostrum specialized form of breast milk that delivers essential nutrients & antibodies in a form the newborn can digest. Produced by mammary glands in late pregnancy & 1st few days after birth
lactation process of forming & secreting milk from breasts as nourishment for infant. Develops few days after giving birth & replaces colostrum.
neonate newborn infant - 4wks
vernix greasy substance that protects the fetus in utero & can still be present @ birth
meconium greenish material that collects in intestines of fetus & forms 1st stools of newborn
Apgar score 1-10, to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status @ 1 & 5 minutes after birth.
newborn Apgar score newborn evaluation assignments 0-2 on each of 5 criteria: 1)heart rate, 2)respiratory effort, 3)muscle tone, 4)response stimulation, 5)skin color
best possible condition Apgar score 8-10
gynecologist GYN; physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of female reproductive system
gynec female
obstetrician OB; physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, & immediately thereafter.
obstetrician's specialty referred to as obstetrics
midwife assists in labor & delivery
certified nurse midwife CNM; RN w/ specialized training in obstetrics & gynocology who provides primary care in normal pregnancies & deliveries
neonatologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of the newborn.
infertility specialist aka fertility specialist; helps infertile couples by diagnosing & treating problems associated w/ conception & maintaining pregnancy
anovulation absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected. Can be caused by stress, malnutrition, or hormonal imbalances. Menstruation can continue
oophoritis inflammation of an ovary. Condition frequently occurs when salpingitis or pelvic inflammatory disease present
ovarian cancer originates w/in cells of ovaries. Cells break away from ovary & spread to other tissues & organs w/in abdomen or travel through bloodstream
pelvic inflammatory disease PID; any inflammation of the female reproductive organs that is not assoc w/ surgery or pregnancy. Occurs most frequently as complication of STD & can lead to infertility, ectopic preg, etc
polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS; condition caused by hormonal imbalance in which ovaries are enlarged by presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles
pyosalpinx accumulation of pus in a fallopian tube
-salpinx fallopian tube
salpingitis inflammation of a fallopian tube
salping fallopian tube
endometriosis patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus & become attached to other structures in pelvic cavity
endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth that begins in lining of the uterus. Earliest symptom is after menopause, abnormal bleeding from uterus
uterine fibroid aka myoma; benign tumor composed of muscle & fibrous tissue that occurs in wall of uterus
uterine prolapse aka pelvic floor hernia; uterus slides from normal position in pelvic cavity & sags into vagina.
prolapse falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part
cervical cancer slow-growing squamous cell cancer. Caused by HPV, detected through pap smears
HPV human papilomaviruses; usually prevented w/ vaccination
cervical dysplasia presence of precancerous changes in the cells that make up the inner lining of the cervix. W/o early detection & treatment, become malignant
cervicitis inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection
endovervicitis inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix
colporrhexis tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall
laceration torn, ragged wound or accidental cut
dyspareunia pain during sexual intercourse
-pareunia sexual intercourse
leukorrhea profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus & vagina. Some is normal, this is due to infection, malignancy, or hormonal changes
vaginal atrophy decrease in elasticity & lubrication caused by hormonal changes. Affects 1/2 of all postmenopausal women
vaginal atrophy treatment moisturizers or estrogen therapy
vaginal candidiasis yeast infection; vaginal infection caused by Candida albicans. Controlled by bacteria normally present in vagina. Symptoms: burning, itching, "cottage-cheese-like" discharge
vaginismus involuntary spasm of pelvic floor muscles, which close off the vagina. Can cause dyspareunia & difficulty tolerating a speculum
vaginitis inflammation of the lining of the vagina. Most common cause: bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, & vaginal candidiasis
pruritus vulvae condition of severe itching of external female genitalia
pruritus itching
vulvodynia painful syndrome of unknown cause; chronic burning, dyspareunia, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva
vulvitis inflammation of the vulva; possible causes: fungal/ bacterial infections, chafing, skin conditions, or allergies to products such as soaps/ bubble bath
fibroadenoma round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular & connective tissue in breast. Benign & usually painless
fibrocystic breast disease presence of a single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts More frequent in older womens
cyst closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material
galactorrhea production of breast milk in a woman who is not breastfeeding. Caused by malfunction of the thyroid or pituitary gland
mastalgia aka mastodynia; pain in breast
mastitis breast infection that is caused by bacteria that enter breast tissue, most frequently during breastfeeding.
amenorrhea abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 90 days or more. Normal only before puberty, during pregnancy, while breastfeeding, & after menopause, can be from stress, hormonal problems, inadequate nutrition, excessive exercise
dysmennorrhea pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period. Pain occurs in lower abdomen, can be sharp, intermittent, dull, or aching
dysfunctional uterine bleeding DUB; abnormal bleeding, often due to an imbalance in hormone level changes
hypermenorrhea menorrhagia; excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days.
hypomenorrhea an unusually small amt of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period.
menometrorrhagia intermenstrual bleeding; excessive uterine bleeding @ both the unusual time of menstrual periods & at other irregular intervals
oligomenorrhea infrequent or very light menstruation in women w/ previously normal periods
polymenorrhea occurrence of menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal.
premature menopause ovaries cease functioning before age 40yrs due to disease, hormonal disorder, or surgical removal
premenstrual syndrome PMS; group of symptoms experienced by some women w/in 2-wk period b4 menstruation. Bloating, swelling, headaches, mood swings, breast discomfort
premenstrual dysphoric disorder PMDD; severe emotional & physical problems that are closely linked to menstrual cycle.
abortion interruption or termination of pregnancy b4 fetus is viable
spontaneous abortion miscarriage; usually occurs early in pregnancy & is due to abnormality or genetic disorder.
induced abortion caused by human intervention, achieved through the use of drugs or suctioning.
therapeutic abortion when abortion is done for medical purposes
ectopic pregnancy aka extrauterine pregnancy; potentially dangerous condition in which fertilized egg is implanted & begins to develop outside of uterus.
ectopic out of place
gestational diabetes mellitus form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy
infertility inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 yr of regular, unprotected intercourse, or inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to live birth
preeclampsia aka pregnancy-induced hypertension; complication of pregnancy w/ hypertension (high BP), edema (swelling), & proteinuria (abnormally high protein in urine)
eclampsia more serious form of preeclampsia w/ convulsions & sometimes coma. Treatment includes delivery of fetus
HELLP syndrome life-threatening pregnancy complication w/ hemolysis (breakdown of RBCs), elevated liver enzymes, & low platelet count. Occurs 10-20% of preg w/ preeclampsia or eclampsia.
Treatment for HELLP syndrome delivery of fetus & careful monitoring to prevent serious maternal complications including hemorrhage & death
Rh factor defines presence or absence of Rh antigen on RBC's. Can cause difficulties when an Rh- mother preggo w/ Rh+ baby. If small amt of baby's blood enters mother's bloodstream, she can develop antibodies in an allergic response.
Rh+ man can father a baby that is either Rh+ or Rh-, potentially causing reaction if mother Rh-.
If both parents Rh- no danger of incompatibility
Rh immunoglobin RhIg, blood product that mother is vaccinated with if blood test identifies Rh problem
Rh abbreviation comes from fact that blood samples from rhesus monkeys were used in experiments that lead to discovery of Rh factor in 1940
abruptio placentae aka placental abruption; disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before birth of fetus. Leading cause of fetal death
abruption breaking off
breech position occurs when buttocks or feet of fetus are positioned to enter birth canal first, instead of head
placenta previa abnormal implantation of placenta in lower portion of uterus. Symptoms include painless, sudden-onset bleeding during 3rd trimester
previa appearing before or in front of
premature infant aka preemie; fetus born before 37 wk of gestation
stillbirth birth of a fetus that died before or during delivery
postpartum depression mood disorder w/ feelings of sadness & the loss of pleasure in normal activities that can occur shortly after giving birth. Rapid change in hormones
colposcopy direct visual exam of tissues of cervix & vagina. Performed w/ binocular magnifier called colposcope
endometrial biopsy small amt of tissue from lining of uterus removed for microscopic exam. Test often for cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding
endovaginal ultrasound performed to determine cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Place an ultrasound transducer in vagina so sound waves can create images of uterus & ovaries
hysterosalpingography HSG; radiographic exam of uterus & fallopian tubes. Test requires instillation of radiopaque contrast material into uterine cavity & fallopian tubes to make them visible.
instillation slow introduction of a liquid into a body part by pouring or injection
hysteroscopy HYS; direct visual exam of interior of uterus & fallopian tubes. Performed using magnification of a hysteroscope
pap smear exfoliative biopsy of cervix. Performed to detect conditions that can be early indicators of cervical cancer.
exfoliative cells that are scraped from tissue & examined under microscope
speculum used to enlarge the opening of the vagina during the exam of the cervix & vagina.
ultrasound & laparoscopy used to diagnose disorders of the reproductive system
pregnancy test performed to detect an unusually high level of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormone in either blood or urine. Usually indication of pregnancy.
first trimester screening aka combined screening; performed btw 11-13 wks of pregnancy and involves ultrasound & finger-stick blood test. Combined results + mother's age detect if fetus is at increased risk for Down syndrome.
chorionic villus sampling CVS; exam of cells retrieved from chorionic villi, which are minute, vascular projections on the chorion. Test btw 8-10th wk of pregnancy to search for genetic abnormalities in developing fetus
amniocentesis surgical puncture w/ needle to obtain specimen of amniotic fluid. Usually after 14th wk, evaluates fetal health & diagnoses certain congenital disorders
pelvimetry radiographic study to measure dimensions of pelvis to evaluate its capacity to allow passage of fetus through birth canal
contraceptive measure taken to lessen likelihood of pregnancy
birth control pills form of hormones that are administered as an oral contraceptive. others available as injection, patch, implant, inserted ring
diaphragm barrier contraceptive that prevents sperm from reaching & fertilizing egg
intrauterine device IUD; molded plastic contraceptive inserted through cervix into uterus to prevent pregnancy
condom prevents pregnancy when used correctly. Only contraceptive method that will also prevent transmission of STDs
hormone replacement therapy HRT; use of female hormones estrogen & progesterone to replace those the body no longer produces during & after perimenopause.
estradiol & progestin commonly used synthetic forms of estrogen & progesterone
oophorectomy aka ovariectomy; surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
surgical menopause if both ovaries are removed in premenopausal woman, this is experienced
salpingectomy surgical removal of 1 or both fallopian tubes
salpingo-oophorectomy SO; surgical removal of a fallopian tube & ovary
bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy removal of both fallopian tubes & ovaries
tubal ligation surgical sterilization procedure in which fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent sperm from reaching mature ovum
colpopexy aka vaginofixation; surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as abdominal wall
conization aka cone biopsy; surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen from the cervix. Performed as diagnostic procedure or to remove abnormal tissue
colporrhaphy surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina
dilation and curettage D&C; surgical procedure in which cervix is dilated & endometrium of uterus scraped away. Can be diagnostic or treatment.
Dilation expansion of an opening
curettage removal of material from the surface by scraping w/ instrument known as a curette
myomectomy surgical removal of uterine fibroids
myom muscle tumor
hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus
total hysterectomy aka complete hystorectomy; uterus & cervix are removed. Performed through vagina or laparoscopically through abdomen
partial or subtotal hysterectomy uterus is removed & cervix is left in place
radical hysterectomy aka bilateral hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy; most commonly performed to treat uterine cancer. Includes surgical removal of ovaries & fallopian tubes, the uterus & cervix, + nearby lymph nodes.
mammoplasty mammaplasty; term for a cosmetic operation on the breasts
breast augmentation mammoplasty performed to increase breast size, often for cosmetic reasons
augmentation process of adding to make larger
breast reduction mammoplasty performed to decrease & reshape excessively large, heavy breasts. Sometimes to relieve back/neck pain.
mastopexy breast lift; mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts in more elevated position
cesarean section c-section; delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal & uterine walls. performed when vaginal unsafe for mother or child
VBAC vaginal birth after a cesarean
episiotomy surgical incision made into perineum to enlarge the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of birth canal
episiorraphy surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy
episi vulva
incubator an apparatus for maintaining an environment of controlled temperature, humidity, & oxygen concentration for premature or ill newborn
assisted reproductive technology ART; techniques used to aid an infertile couple in achieving a viable pregnancy.
artificial insemination IUI, intrauterine insemination; technique which sperm from donor or partner introduced into vagina or uterus during ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle
in vitro fertilization IVF; procedure in which mature ova are removed from the mother to be fertilized. Resulting embryos are transferred into uterus w/ hope they will implant & continue to develop as normal pregnancy
AMA Advanced Maternal Age; Late 30's to late 40's. Pregnancy decreases w/ age
AI Artificial insemination
ART assisted reproductive technology
IVF in vitro fertilization
in vitro in an artificial environment such as test tube
surrogate a woman who agrees to become pregnant & give birth on behalf of a person or couple.
AMN amniocentesis
BV bacterial vaginosis
CS cesarean section
HRT hormone replacement therapy
HPV human papillomaviruses
HSG hysterosalpingography
HYS hysterescopy
IUD intrauterine device
L&D labor & delivery
NICU neonatal intensive care unit
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
PMS prementrual syndrome
Created by: kld0519
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