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Med Term zCH15

Med Term zCH15 Diagnostic Procedures, Nuclear Medicine, and Pharmacology

TermDefinition
albumin/o albumin, protein
calc/i calcium, lime, the heel
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
creatin/o creatinine
glycos/o glucose, sugar
-graphy the process of producing a picture or record
hemat/o blood, relating to the blood
lapar/o abdomen, abdominal wall
-otomy cutting, surgical incision
phleb/o vein
radi/o radiation, x-rays
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy visual examination
son/o sound
-uria urination, urine
assessment evaluation or appraisal of the patient's condition. Used to reach diagnosis and in formulating a plan of care.
observation 1st step in physical assessment, observing overall appearance, emotional affect, and ambulation.
overall appearance observation: includes # of factors: how appropriately is patient dressed, whether any body odor, signs of possible difficulties w/ self-care.
emotional affect observation: refers to patient's expression, tone of voice, mood, & emotions.
affect the outward expression of emotion
ambulation observation: the way the patient walks, including gait, any unsteadiness, or possible difficulty.
vital signs 4 key indications that body systems are functioning. temperature, pulse, respiration, & blood pressure.
VSS vital signs stable
Avg normal body temperature 98.6 deg F or 37.0 deg C
fever oral body temperature of 100 deg F or higher, most commonly caused by an infection, an injury, or medications.
temperature readings named for location in which they are taken: oral (mouth), aural (ear), axillary (armpit), and rectal (in the rectum), temporal artery (forehead - scanner)
hyperthermia extremely high fever
hypothermia abnormally low body temperature
pulse rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery that is caused by the beating of the heart. Pulse rate reflects # of times heart beats each minute & is recorded as bpm
normal resting heart rate differs by age group. Adults: 60-100 bpm, newborn 100-160 bpm, athletes 40-60 bpm
respiration aka respiratory rate, RR; # of breaths per min. Single respiration is 1 inhalation & 1 exhalation. Normal adults: 12-20 min
blood pressure BP; force of blood against the walls of the arteries.
sphygmomanometer measures force of blood against walls of arteries (measures BP). Digital does not require use of stethoscope
stethoscope required to listen to the blood sounds for BP
systolic blood pressure first beat heard
diastolic blood pressure last beat heard
pain 5th vital sign, but subjective (determined by patient).
pain rating scale patient is asked to describe his/ her level of pain from 0 (no pain) to 10 (severe pain).
acute pain comes on quickly, can be severe and lasts only a relatively short time. Cane be caused by disease, inflammation, or injury to the tissues. Goes away when treated
chronic pain can be mild or severe, persists over longer period of time than acute pain & is resistant to most med treatments. Often causes severe problems for patient
auscultation listening for sounds w/in the body & is usually performed through a stethoscope
respiratory sounds heard through stethoscope, provide info about condition of lungs & pleura as patient breathes
rales aka crackles; abnormal crackle-like lung sounds heard through a stethoscope during inspiration (breathing in)
rhonchi coarse rattling sounds that are somewhat snoring. Usually caused by secretions in the bronchial airways
stridor abnormal, high-pitched, musical breathing sound caused by blockage in the throat or in the larynx (voice box)
auscultation listening through a stethoscope to sounds w/in the body
2 distinct sounds of heartbeat through stethoscope lubb dupp or lub dub
lubb sound 1 of 2 distinct heartbeat sounds, heard 1st, caused by tricuspid & mitral valves closing btw the atria & ventricles
dupp sound 1 of 2 distinct heartbeat sounds, heard 2nd, shorter & higher pitched. Caused by closing of the semilunar valves in aorta & pulmonary arteries as blood is pumped out of the heart
bruit abnormal sound or murmur heard during auscultation of an artery. Usually due to partially blocked, narrowed, or diseased artery.
thrill abnormal rhythmic vibration felt when palpating an artery.
heart murmur abnormal heart sound that is most commonly a sign of defective heart valves. Described by volume & stage of the heartbeat when murmur heard.
abdominal sounds aka bowel sounds; normal noises made by intestines. Auscultation of abdomen performed to evaluate sounds & detect abnormalities.
Ex of what increased bowel sounds might mean bowel obstruction
absence of bowel sounds could indicate an ileus, which is the stopping of intestinal peristalsis
palpation an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, & location of certain body parts
percussion diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface w/ fingers
ophthalmoscope instrument used to examine the interior of the eye
otoscope instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal & tympanic membrane
speculum instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity, especially the vagina, to facilitate inspection of its interior
stethoscope an instrument used to listen to sounds w/in the body
recumbent any position in which the patient is lying down, cane be back-front-or side.
decubitus used in radiography, describes the patient lying in recumbent position
positions in which patient is face-up horizontal recumbent, dorsal recombent, lithotomy
positions in which patient is face-down or on side prone, Sims', knee-chest
horizontal recumbent position aka supine position; patient is lying on back, face up. Used for exams & treatment of anterior surface of body & for x-rays
dorsal recumbent position patient is lying on the back, face up, w/ knees bent. Used for exam & treatment of abdominal area & for vaginal or rectal exams
lithotomy position patient is lying on the back, face up, w/ feet & legs raised & supported in stirrups. Used for vaginal & rectal exams & during childbirth
prone position patient is lying on the abdomen face down. Arms may placed under head for comfort. Used for exam & treatment of back & buttocks
Sims' position patient is lying on the left side w/ right knee & thigh drawn up w/ left arm placed along the back. Used in exam & treatment of rectal area
knee-chest position patient lying face down w;/ hips bent so that knees & chest rest on table. Used for rectal exams
stat results needed immediately & have top priority
profile, when used in regard to laboratory tests tests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multi-channel laboratory testing equipment
phlebotomist medical professional who is trained to draw blood from patients for various laboratory tests & other procedures
phlebotomy aka venipuncture; puncture of a vein for the purpose of drawing blood.
arterial stick puncture of an artery, usually on inside of wrist, to obtain arterial blood.
Arterial blood vs. venous blood differ in concentration of dissolved gases containted
capillary puncture technique used when only a small amt of blood is needed as a specimen for a blood test.
finger, heel, or earlobe stick common places where a capillary puncture is performed & named after
complete blood cell count CBC; series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate aka sed rate; test based on the speed with which RBC's separate from plasma & fall to bottom of specialized test tube.
elevated set rate indicates presence of inflammation in the body
normal range for sed rate, adults under 50 <15-20 mm/hr
normal range for sed rate, adults over 50 <20-30mm/hr
hematocrit Hct; describes percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by RBC's. Used to diagnose abnormal states of hydration, polycythemia, and anemia.
hydration fluid levels in body
polycythemia excess RBC's
anemia deficient RBC's
platelet count measures # of platelets in a specified amt of blood & is a screening test to evaluate platelet function. Also to monitor changes in blood assoc w/ chemotherapy & radiation
thrombocytosis an abnormal increase in # of platelets
thrombocytopenia abnormal decrease in # of platelets
red blood cell count RBC; determination of the # of erythrocytes in the blood. Depressed count can indicate anemia or an acute hemorrhage
total hemoglobin test Hb; usually part of a complete blood count. Can be elevated or low levels
Elevated Hb levels indicate Higher than normal hemoglobin concentration in plasma due to polycythemia or dehydration.
Low Hb levels indicate lower than normal hemoglobin concentration due to anemia, recent hemorrhage, or fluid retention
-globin protein
white blood cell count WBC; determination of the # of leukocytes in the blood. Elevated count can be indication of infection or inflammation
white blood cell differential count tests to see what % of total WBC count is composed of each of the 5 types of leukocytes. Provides info about immune system, detects certain types of leukemia, determines severity of infection
basic metabolic panel BMP or Profile 8; group of 8 specific blood tests that provide important info about current status of patient's kidneys, electrolyte balance, blood sugar, & calcium levels.
significant changes in basic metabolic panel can indicate acute problems such as kidney failure, diabetes-related complications, or respiratory problems.
blood urea nitrogen test BUN; measures the amt of nitrogen in blood due to waste product area. Performed to obtain an indication of kidney function.
Urea major end product of protein metabolism found in urine & blood
crossmatch test performed to determine compatibility of blood donor & recipient before a blood transfusion. Agglutination is a positive reaction that indicates donor unit is not suitable match
agglutination clumping together of RBC's
C-reactive protein test CRP; performed to identify levels of inflammation w/in body.
The info provided by C-reactive protein test is obtained by the presence of the C-reactive protein, which is produced by the liver only in episodes of acute inflammation. Elevated level can indicate heart attack, coronary artery disease, or autoimmune disorder
lipid panel aka lipid profile; measures amts of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides in blood sample
prothrombin time aka pro time; coagulation test used to diagnose conditions assoc w/ abnormalities of clotting time & to monitor anticoagulant therapy.
a longer prothrombin time can be caused by serious liver disease, bleeding disorders, blood-thinning medicines, or lack of vit K
serum bilirubin test measures ability of the liver to take up, process, & secrete bilirubin into the bile. Test useful in determining whether patient has liver disease or a blocked bile duct.
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay measures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that can indicate abnormal thyroid activity.
arterial blood gas analysis ABG; measures the pH, oxygen, & carbon dioxide levels of arterial blood. Used to evaluate lung & kidney function & overall metabolism
urinalysis examination of the physical & chemical properties of urine to determine the presense of abnormal elemebts
routine urinalysis performed to screen for urinary & systemic disorders. Uses dipstick.
routine urinalysis dipstick plastic strip impregnated w/ chemicals that react w/ substances in the urine & change color when abnormalities are present
microscopic examination specimen is performed when more detailed testing of the specimen is necessary, ex to identify casts.
casts fibrous or protein materials, such as pus & fats, that are thrown off into the urine in kidney disease
average normal range of pH of urine 4.5 to 8.0
abbreviation pH describes degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
pH value below 7 indicates acid urine & is an indication of acidosis
acidosis excessive acid in body fluids ("d" for down, below 7)
alkalosis opposite of acidosis ("l" for elevated....above 7)
pH value above 7 indicates alkaline urine & can indicate conditions such as a UTI
specific gravity of urine reflects amt of wastes, minerals, and solids that are present
low specific gravity of urine aka dilute urine; characteristic of diabetes insipidus
high specific gravity of urine aka concentrated urine; occurs in conditions like dehydration, liver failure, or shock.
albuminuria presence of protein albumin in urine. High test levels are sign of impaired kidney function.
albumin form of protein found in most body tissues
bacteriuria presence of bacteria in urine
calciuria presence of calcium in urine.
Abnormally high levels of calciuria can be diagnostic for hyperparathyroidism
Lower-than-normal levels of calciuria can indicate osteomalacia
creatinuria increased concentration of creatinine in the urine
creatinine waste product of muscle metabolism that is normally removed by the kidneys. Presence of excess creatinine is indication of increased muscle breakdown or disruption of kidney function
drug-screening urine test rapid method of identifying the presence in the body of 1 or more drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin, & marijuana. Also detect performance-enhancing drugs by athletes
glycosuria presence of glucose in urine. Most commonly caused by untreated diabetes mellitus
hematuria presence of blood in urine. Can be caused by kidney stones, infection, kidney damage, or bladder cancer.
ketonuria presence of ketones in urine.
ketones formed when body breaks down fat, & their presence in urine can indicate starvation or uncontrolled diabetes
proteinuria presence of an abnormal amt of protein in the urine. Usually sign of kidney disease
pyuria presence of pus in urine. When pus present, urine is turbid in appearance
turbid cloudy or smoky appearance
urine culture & sensitivity tests aka urine C & S; lab test that is used to ID cause of UTI & to determine which antibiotic would be most effective treatment
endoscopy visual exam of interior of body cavity. Usually named for organs involved.
endoscopic surgery surgical procedure that is performed through very small incisions w/ use of an endoscope & specialized instruments. Named for body parts involved.
endoscope small, flexible tube w/ light & lens on the end. Fiberoptic instruments named for body parts they are designed to examine
laparoscopy visual exam of interior of abdomen w/ use of laparoscope that is passed through small incision in abdominal wall.
lapar/o abdomen
why is laparoscope used explore/examine interior of abdomen, take specimens to be biopsied, perform surgical procedures such as endoscopic removal of diseased gallbladder.
centesis surgical puncture to remove excess fluid or to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes.
abdominocentesis surgical puncture of abdominal cavity to remove fluid
-centisis surgical puncture to remove fluid
amniocentesis surgical puncture to remove amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac
arthrocentesis surgical puncture of joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis to determine cause of pain or swelling in joint
cardiocentesis aka cardiopuncture; puncture of a chamber of the heart for diagnosis or therapy
pericardiocentesis puncture of the pericardial sac for purpose of removing fluid. Used to treat pericarditis
peri- surrounding
endo within
contrast medium administered by swallowing, via enema, or intravenously to make specific body structures visible. Media either radiopaque or radiolucent
radiopaque the substance does not allow x-rays to pass through & appears white or light gray on resulting film.
radiolucent the substance, such as air or nitrogen gas, allows x-rays to pass through & appears black or dark gray on resulting film
intravenous contrast medium injected into a vein to make the flow of blood through blood vessels & organs visible
intra- within
radiography x-ray; uses x-radiation passing through patient to expose film or create digital image that shows body in profile.
resulting film appearance in radiography hard tissues are light, soft tissues are shades of gray, air is black
computed tomography CT; uses x-radiation w/ computer assistance to produce multiple cross-sectional views of body.
resulting film appearance in computed tomography hard tissues are light, soft tissues appear as shades of gray
magnetic resonance imaging MRI; uses combination of radio waves & strong magnetic field to produce images.
resulting film appearance in magnetic resonance imaging hard tissues dark, soft tissues appear as shades of gray
conventional radiology creates image of hard-tissue internal structures by exposure of sensitized film to x-radiation.
radiograph/ radiogram/ x-ray resulting film of conventional radiology
ionizing radiation x-radiation; beneficial in producing diagnostic images & in treating cancer, but exposure can be dangerous w/ cumulative effects.
invisible, has no odor, & cannot be felt x-radiation
dosimetry science of measuring radiation exposure
radiopaque hard tissues bone/ tooth enamel, appear white or light gray on radiograph.
radiolucent soft tissues muscles & skin, appear as shades of gray to black on radiograph
radiologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders w/ x-rays & other forms of radiant engery
interventional radiology use of radiographic imaging to guide a procedure such as a biopsy. Also used to confirm the placement of an inserted object such as a stent or feeding tube
radiographic positioning describes placement of patient's body & part of body that is closest to x-ray.
radiographic projection path that the x-ray beam follows through the patient's body from entrance to exit
extraoral radiography film is placed & exposed outside of the mouth
panoramic radiograph aka Panorex; shows all structures in both dental arches in a single film
intraoral radiography film is placed within the mouth & exposed by a camera positioned next to exterior of cheek
tomography use of x-rays or ultrasound to produce a cross-section of the body
computed tomography scan CT, computerized axial tomography CAT; uses thin, fan-shaped x-ray beam that rotates around patient to produce multiple cross-sectional views of body
CT more effective than ? at imaging compact bone & preferred for head injuries or strokes MRI
contrast dye for CT scans iodine
tomotherapy use of tomography in cancer treatment
magnetic resonance imaging MRI; uses combination of radio waves & strong magnetic field to create signals that are sent to a computer & converted into images of any plane through the body.
MRI's used to construct images of internal organs & tissues that often do not show up well in radiographs.
MRI's are noninvasive means of examining soft tissues such as those of heart, blood vessels, brain, spinal cord, joints, muscles, & internal organs.
MRI images can be produced in coronal, sagittal, or oblique planes & are created w/o use of x-radiation
closed MRI most common w/ most accurate pictures. Narrow, loud
open MRI less confining than closed, more comfortable for some ppl. Lower field strength which limits use
gadolinium natural chemical element sometimes used for contrast in MRI for patient's allergic to iodine
magnetic resonance angiography MRA, magnetic resonance angio; helps locate problems w/ BV's throughout body. Frequent alternative to angiography
fluoroscopy visualization of body parts in motion by projecting x-ray images on a luminous fluorescent screen.
luminous glowing
cineradiography recording of fluoroscopy images
cine- relationship to movement
ultrasonography aka ultrasound, diagnostic ultrasound; imaging of deep body structures by recording the echoes of sound wave pulses that are above the range of human hearing. No radiation
sonogram image created by ultrasonography.
sonographer technician specifically trained in ultrasonography
common uses of ultrasound evaluating fetal development; detecting presence of gallstones or blood clot; identifying tears in tendons, muscles or ligaments; confirming presence of a mass found on mammogram.
carotid ultrasonography use of sound waves to image the carotid artery to detect and obstruction that could cause an ischemic stroke
echocardiography ultrasonic diagnostic procedure used to evaluate the structures & motion of the heart.
resulting record of an echocardiography echocardiogram
Doppler echocardiogram performed in same way as an echocardiogram; measures speed & direction of blood flow w/in heart
fetal ultrasound noninvasive procedure used to image & evaluate fetal development during pregnancy.
3D/4D ultrasound technique that uses specialized equipment to create photograph-like images of the developing child
transesophageal echocardiography TEE; ultrasonic imaging technique used to evaluate heart structures. Performed from inside esphagus & b/c esophagus so close to heart, technique produces clearer images than those obtained w/ echocardiography
nuclear medicine radiopharmaceuticals are used for either diagnosing or treatment purposes.
radiopharmaceuticals contain radioactive materials called radioisotopes that produce a powerful form of energy called radiation. Can be inserted into a vein, taken by mouth, or placed inside body
radiation therapy nuclear medicine used for treatment of cancer & thyroid disease
nuclear medicine technologist specializes in preparation & administration or radiopharmaceuticals
nuclear imaging use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes. Images document structure & formation of organ or organs being examined. Low dose of radiopharmaceuticals taken internally
each radiopharmaceutical contains radionuclide tracer (radioactive tracer), which is specific to the body system being examined. The short-lived tracer can be given by mouth or inserted into vein
radiopharmaceuticals emit gamma rays that are detected by a special camera attached to a computer. Used to generate an image showing the pattern of absorption that can be indicative of pathology
nuclear scan aka scintigram; diagnostic procedure that uses nuclear med technology to gather info about structure & function of organs or body systems that cannot be seen on conventional x-rays
bone scan nuclear scanning test that ID's new areas of bone growth or breakdown. Can evaluate damage to bones, detect cancer that has metastasized to bones, & monitor conditions that affect bones.
the results of bone scan are obtained after... a radionuclide tracer is injected into the bloodstream, & patient then waits while material travels through body tissues.
thyroid scan radiopharmaceutical containing radioactive iodine is administered. Scan makes use of thyroid gland's ability to concentrate certain radioactive isotopes to generate images of it.
what type of information is provided by a thyroid scan size, shape, location, & relative activity of different parts of the thyroid gland
single photon emission computed tomography SPECT; type of nuclear imaging test that produces 3D computer-reconstructed images showing perfusion through tissues & organs
perfusion the flow of blood through an organ
SPECT scanning used for to view the flow of blood through arteries & veins in the brain. Also useful in diagnosing blood-deprived areas of brain following stroke
positron emission tomography PET, PET imaging; combines tomography w/ radionuclide tracers, usually inserted into vein, to produce enhanced images of selected body organs or areas.
PET scans of whole body used for to detect cancer & to examine the effects of cancer therapy
PET scans of heart used to determine blood flow to heart muscle. helps evaluate signs of coronary artery disease or to differentiate nonfunctional heart muscle from tissue that would benefit from angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery
PET scans of brain evaluate patients who have memory disorders of an undetermined cause, suspected or proven brain tumors, or seizure disorders not responsive to med therapy
pharmacology study of the nature, uses, & effects of drugs for medical purposes
pharmac drug
pharmacist licensed specialist who formulates & dispenses prescribed medications
ac before meals
ad lib as desired
amt amount
bid twice a day
NPO nothing by mouth
pc after meals
po by mouth
prn as needed
qh every hour
qid four times a day
Rx prescription
sig to be labeled accordingly
tid three times a day
prescription drug medication that can legally be dispensed only by a pharmacist w/ order from licensed professional such as physician or dentist
over-the-counter drug OTC; medication that can be purchased w/o prescription
generic drug usually named for generic structure & not protected by brand name or trademark. Ex diazepam is generic name of drug frequently used as skeletal muscle relaxant, sedative, & anti-anxiety agent
brand-name drug sold under name given by drug mfg, always spelled w/ capital letter, Ex Valium is brand name for diazepam
@ at
c with line over top with
formulary list of prescription drugs covered by specific health care plan.
Physician's Desk Reference PDR; most commonly used drug info guide that is updated annually
addiction compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on drug, alcohol, or other substance. Can also be habit or practice that cannot be stopped w/o causing severe emotional, mental, or physiologic reactions
controlled substances addictive prescription meds & illegal drugs whose mfg, possession, & use are regulated by government
tolerance when body has become accustomed to a medication after being on it for a length of time, & higher doses are required to achieve the desired effect.
adverse drug reaction ADR, side effect; undesirable reaction that accompanies the principal response for which the drug was taken
compliance patient's consistency & accuracy in following the regimen prescribed by a physician or other health care professional.
regimen relating to compliance directions or rules
drug interaction result of drugs reacting w/ each other, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful. Can occur when meds taken w/ herbal remedies or when more than 1 prescription taken @ a time
synergism interaction of 2 drugs taken together that enhances the effectiveness of both.
idiosyncratic reaction unexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual
palliative substance that eases the pain or severity of symptoms of a disease but does not cure it.
palliative care treatment that focuses on alleviating pain & relieving symptoms rather than curing the disease
paradoxical reaction result of medical treatment that yields the opposite of normally expected results
paradoxical not being normal or the usual kind
placebo an inactive substance, such as sugar pill or liquid, that is administered only for its suggestive effects.
antipyretic medication administered to prevent or reduce fever. Aspirin & acetaminophen act by lowering a raised body temp but do not affect a normal body temp when fever not present
pyret fever
anti-inflammatory relieves inflammation & pain w/o affecting consciousness
analgesic class of drugs that relieve pain w/o affecting consciousness. aspirin, acetaminophen, & ibuprofen
non-narcotic analgesics such as aspirin, are sold OTC for mild to moderate pain. Prescription pain relievers sold through pharmacy are used for moderate to severe pain.
narcotic analgesics such as morphine, Demerol, and codeine, avail by prescription only to relieve severe pain. Also have sedative (calming) effect & can cause physical dependence or addiction.
acetaminophen analgesic that reduces pain & fever but does not relieve inflammation. Does not have negative side effecto of NSAIDS. Basic ingredient in Tylenol
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs are non-narcotic analgesics administered to control pain by reducing inflammation & swelling. Can attack stomach lining & thin blood
OTC NSAIDS aspirin, ibuprofen
ibuprofen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine that is sold OTC under band names of Advil & Motrin. Med acts as analgesic & antipyretic
anticonvulsants/ antidepressants effective as part of some chronic pain mgmt programs.
anticonvulsants traditionally administered to prevent seizures such as those associated w/ epilepsy
antidepressants primarily administered to prevent or relieve depression
pain-relieving creams applied topically to relieve pain due to conditions such as osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis. Primary active ingredient capsaicin
capsaicin chemical found in chili peppers, found in pain-relieving creams.
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation TENS; method of pain control by wearing a device that delivers small electrical impulses, as needed, to nerve endings through skin
cutane skin
transcutaneous performed through unbroken skin
inhalation administration describes vapors & gases taken in through nose or mouth & absorbed into bloodstream through lungs.
oral administration medications taken by mouth to be absorbed through walls of stomach or small intestine. Can be in forms of liquids, tablets, or capsules.
enteric coating meds to be released in small intestine are covered w/ this to prevent them from being absorbed in stomach
rectal administration insertion of meds in rectum either in the form of suppository or a liquid
suppository med in a semisolid form that is introduced into rectum. Melts @ body temp & absorbed through surrounding tissue
sublingual administration placement of medication under tongue where it is allowed to dissolve slowly. B/c sublingual highly vascular, meds quickly absorbed into bloodstream
highly vascular containing many blood vessels
topical application liquid or ointment rubbed into skin on area to be treated
transdermal medication administered from a patch that is applied to unbroken skin. Meds continuously released by patch, absorbed through skin & transmitted to bloodstream for systemic effect
parenteral taken into the body or administered in manner other than through digestive tract. most common through hypodermic syringe
subcutaneous injection SC; made into fatty layer just below skin
intradermal injection made into middle layers of skin
intramuscular injection IM; made directly into muscle tissue
intravenous injection IV; made directly into a vein.
IV infusion administered over period of time
PICC line peripherally inserted central catheter; frequently used for a patient who will need IV therapy for more than 7 days
bolus bolus infusion; single, concentrated dose of a drug usually injected into a blood vessel over short period of time
complementary & alternative medicine CAM; therapies used to supplement or replace allopathic medicine
allopathic medicine conventional, Western, medical practices & systems of health care
alternative medicines general term for practices & systems of health care other than allopathic approaches used in place of these treatments
complementary medicine general term for practices & systems of health care other than allopathic approaches used to supplement these treatments
integrative medicine model of health care based on both allopathic & alternative medicine
holistic a treatment approach that takes into consideration the whole body & its environment, including the mind, body, & spirit
wellness general term that means actively working toward a state of being in good physical & mental health. Healthy diet, exercise, stress reduction, & avoiding risky behavior
Ayurvedic medicine traditional Hindu system of medicine, emphasizing a holistic approach to preventive treatment through hygiene, exercise, herbal preparations, yoga, and treatment of illnesses w/ herbal medicines, physiotherapy, & diet
Traditional Chinese medicine system of ancient Chinese medicinial treatments including acupuncture, diet, herbal therapy, meditation, physical exercise, & massage to prevent, diagnose, & treat disease. Also used in complementary medicine
kinesiology study of body movements & physical activity.
applied kinesiology alternative therapy that combines muscle monitoring w/ principles of Chinese medicine
naturopathy aka naturopathic medicine; combo of nutrition, medicinal supplements & herbs, water therapy, homeopathy, & lifestyle modifications used to identify & treat root causes of symptoms & disease instead of surgery/ drugs
homeopathy involves use of substances created from plant or mineral products diluted a thousand-fold in water or alcohol. Body can stimulate its own healing response when right trigger given in minute doses, producing symptoms similar to disease being treated
3 categories of complementary medicine mind-body therapies, hands-on therapies, & energy therapies
mind-body therapies try to reduce stress & prevent negative effects on body. Used for stress reduction, pain management, lifestyle changes, & depression. Belief that emotions trigger physiological responses.
mind-body therapy types biofeedback, guided imagery, hypnosis, mindfulness meditation
biofeedback patient-guided treatment that teaches individuals to control muscle tension, pain, body temp, brain waves, & other bodily functions through relaxation, visualization, & other cognitive control techniques
guided imagery visualization; type of treatment in which patient follows verbal prompts to envision specific, peaceful location in detail, distancing themselves from any pain or stress currently experiencing
hypnosis type of therapy where patient placed in state of focused concentration & narrowed attention that makes them more susceptible to suggestions, then suggestions provided toward treatment goal
mindfulness meditation focused on becoming aware of thoughts & emotions & their physiological responses, as well as accepting them & maintaining a calm, constant awareness
energy therapies try to improve or maintain health by manipulating body's energy flow, or qi. Based on belief that illness is linked to blocked or insufficient energy levels
Qi believed to be fundamental life energy responsible for health & vitality.
acupressure traditional Chinese touch therapy involving finger pressure applied to specific areas of body to restore flow of qi
acupuncture traditional Chinese medical practice using very thin acupuncture needles inserted into specific points of body to restore flow of qi
Qi Gong Chinese system of movement,breathing techniques, & meditation designed to improve & enhance flow of qi
Reiki Japanese technique in which the practitioner transfers healing energy to the patient by means of visualization or gentle touch
hands-on therapies improve body function by physically manipulating or massaging body. Used for neck or back pain, relaxation, & increased range of motion
chiropractic manipulative therapy system of mechanical spinal adjustments made by chiropractor to correct biomechanical problems in skeletal framework of body
osteopathic manipulative therapy mechanical spinal adjustment used in conjunction w/ conventional medical therapies by osteopath
craniosacral therapy use of gentle touch to help body release tension, stress, & trauma to correct restrictions resulting from stress on CNS
myofascial release specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, TMJ, & carpal tunnel syndrome
neuromuscular therapy NMT; form of massage that uses soft-tissue manipulation focusing on applying pressure to trigger points to treat injuries & alleviate pain
trigger point particularly taut band of muscle that is tender to the touch
ADR adverse drug reaction
bpm beats per minute
BP blood pressure
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CBC complete blood count
CT scan computed tomography scan
endo endoscopy
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Hct hematocrit
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
RBC red blood count
RR respiratory rate
TPR temperature, pulse, respiration
WBC white blood count
Created by: kld0519