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The Skull - Facial

Bones and Markings of the Facial Bones

Mandible Commonly known as the lower jaw, largest strongest bone of the face, divided into body (forms chin) and 2 rami.
Mandibular Angle Where each mandibular ramus meets the mandibular body.
Mandibular Notch Located at the superior margin of each ramus, separates the coronoid process and the mandibular condyle.
Coronoid Process "Crown-shaped" insertion point for the large temporalis muscle that elevates the lower jaw during chewing, located ant. to the mandibular notch.
Mandibular Condyle Located post. to the mandibular notch, articulates w/ the mandibular fossa to form the tempromandibular joint.
Mandibular Body Forms the chin, anchors the lower teeth.
Mandibular Alveolar Margin Superior border of the mandibular body, contains sockets in which teeth are embedded.
Mandibular Symphysis Midlin depression on the mandibular body that indicates where the 2 mandibular bones fused during infancy.
Mandibular Foramina Located on the medial surface of each ramus, permit the nerves responsible for teeth sensation to pass to lower jaw.
Mental Foramina Located on the lateral aspects of the mandibular body, allow blood vessels and nerves to pass to the skin of the chin.
Maxillary Bones Fused medially, form the upper jaw and central portion of the facial skeleton, keystone bone, all bones except mandible articulate with it.
Maxillary Alveolar Margin Inferior border of the maxillary, anchor the upper teeth.
Anterior Nasal Spine Pointed junction of the maxillae bones just inferior to the bones.
Palatine Process Projection of the maxillae post. from the alveolar margin, fuses medially forming the ant. two-thirds of the hard palate.
Incisive Fossa Located just post. to the upper teeth, serves passage of blood vessels and nerves.
Frontal Processes (Maxillary) Extends superiorly to the frontal bone forming part fo the lateral bridge of the nose.
Maxillary Sinuses Flank the nose cavity laterally, largest of the paranasal sinuses.
Inferior Orbital Fissure Located deep within the orbit at the junction of the maxilla and sphenoid greater wing, allows passage of zygomatic nerve, maxillary nerve (branch of cranial V) and blood vessels.
Infraorbital Foramen Just below the eye socket, allows the infraorbital nerve (continuation of maxillary) and artery to reach the face.
Zygomatic Bones "Cheekbones", articulate w/ zygomatic processes of temporal bone (post.), frontal (superiorly), maxillae (ant.), also form part of inferolateral margin of the orbits.
Nasal Bones Thin, rectangular, fused medially forming the bridge of the nose, articulate w/ frontal (superiorly), maxillary (laterally), perpidicular plate of ethmoid (post.), nose cartilage (inferiorly)
Lacrimal Bones Delicate, fingernail shaped, contribute to medial wall of the orbit, contains the lacrimal fossa
Lacrimal Fossa Deep groove on the lacrimal bone that contains the lacrimal sac, part of the passageway that drains tears from the eye to the nasal cavity.
Palatine Bones L-shaped bones, fashioned from the horizontal and perpidicular plates, 3 important processes, pyramidal, sphenoidal, orbital
Vomer Plow-shaped, lies within the nasal cavity where it forms part of the nasal septum.
Inferior Nasal Conchae Thin, curved bones in the nasal cavity, largest of the 3 pairs of conchae.
Orbital Bones Formed by frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, ethmoid (7 total)
Orbits Encase the eyes, muscles that move the eyes and lacrimal glands, eyes cushioned by fatty tissue.
Nasal Cavity Bones Ethmoid cribiform plate (roof), superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid, perpindicular plate of palatine, inferior nasal conchae (lateral wall), palatine process of the maxilla, palatine bone (floor).
Nasal Septum Divides the nasal cavity into right and left, bony portion formed by the vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid.
Septal Cartilage Completes the nasal septum anteriorly
Paranasal Sinuses Contained in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones, lighten skull and enhance resonance of the voice