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US in WW II Peace

Gateway to History Chapter 12 World War II Americas Darkest Hour

Fascism a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition.
Nazism the body of political and economic ideas held and put into effect by the Nazis in Germany from 1933 to 1945. Germanic people were assumed bot be racially superior and supremacy of the f├╝hrer was promoted.
Benito Mussolini a former Fascist leader of Italy, an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party.
Adolf Hitler a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party in Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Spanish Civil War where a right-wing general, Francisco Franco, was fighting to overturn his countries elected socialist government in Spain.
Appeasement this is a policy of "giving into the demands" of a dictator
Blitzkreig this style of warfare was all about hitting hard and fast with a mechanized army. Germany made this famous during World War II.
Neutrality Acts the United States Congress passed a series of legislation to keep America out of the coming war.
Quarantine Speech this speech was given by President Franklin Roosevelt that the "peaceful nations" must band together to isolate aggressive nations or their acts of aggression.
Lend-Lease Act President Roosevelt signed this act that authorized the United States to sell, lease, or lend war materials to "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States".
Four Freedoms President Roosevelt's policy to establish a world based on four freedoms. 1. speech and expression. 2. freedom of religion. 3. freedom from want. 4. freedom from fear.
Atlantic Charter this philosophy laid the foundation for the future United Nations of which would establish an organization to keep world peace.
Pearl Harbor Attack on December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan attacked the United States creating a state of war between the two countries.
Salerno this was the site of an Allied amphibious attack on mainland Italy against the Germans on September 9th 1943
Stalingrad German and Soviet troops had been locked in a deadly combat in this city. It was extremely bloody and became the turning point of the war between the Soviets and Germans.
D-Day this was the Allied invasion of Hitler's Fortress Europe on the coast of France in 1944.
Normandy this was the name of the French coastline where the D-Day Invasion took place.
Battle of the Bulge December 16, 1944, the Germans launched a "last chance" attack against the allies. For 6 weeks the Allies barely held on against the Germans.
V-E Day Germany surrendered to the Allies on May 7th & 8th 1945. It means Victory in Europe.
Battle of Coral Sea American and Japanese aircraft carriers and planes fought this naval battle. It resulted in an American victory.
Battle of Midway American and Japanese aircraft carriers and planes fought this naval battle. The Japanese lost 4 aircraft carriers while the Americans only lost one. This battle was the end of the Japanese Navy.
Hiroshima (Atomic Bomb) On August 6th 1945, the Americans dropped an atomic bomb on this Japanese city
Nagasaki (Atomic Bomb) On August 9th 1945, the Americans dropped a 2nd atomic bomb on a Japanese city
V-J Day on this day September 2nd 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered to the United States
Home Front this term describe the efforts by a country to mobile and support a war effort.
Japanese-American Internment WW II President FDR and Congress passed legislation that called for all Japanese Americans to be unfairly relocated to "camps" for the duration of the war.
Korematsu v. United States in this United States Supreme Court Case, a Japanese American man sued for his right NOT to be sent to a relocation camp and LOST.
Double V campaign the Pittsburg Courier called for victory in Europe and victory against racism on the home front for African Americans
A. Philip Randolph this person was an advocate for the rights of African Americans and organized a march on Washington D.C. President Roosevelt felt that this would be bad publicity to have before the war and negotiated with these people not to march. In return, the Federal Government would discontinue the discriminating hiring practices of the Federal Government.
Nazi-Soviet Pact in this August 1939 agreement Germany's Hitler and Soviet Union's Stalin decided to conquer and split Poland after both sides invaded it.
Women's Army Corps (WACs) established in 1942, women were allowed to enlist in the United States military
Tuskegee Airmen This all African American fighter pilots participated in the War in Europe.
Najavo "code talkers" these Native Americans formed a secret code from the Najavo language that the Japanese could not decipher.
Holocaust the policy or "Final Solution" of Nazi Germany led to the extermination of 6 million Jews and other Europeans in concentration "death" camps during World War II.
Auschwitz this German "death" camp had one of the highest death tolls of Jews and other Europeans
Bataan Death March in the Pacific War Theater, the Americans in the Philippines surrendered and were forces to march 80 miles with little food or water and in extreme heat. Many died as a direct result of these actions by the Japanese Army.
Manhattan Project the U.S. Government launch this top secret project to develop an atomic bomb
Harry S. Truman after the tragic death of President Franklin Roosevelt, his Vice President took office and completed World War II
Albert Einstein this famous German born Jewish scientist was instrumental in helping the United States develop an Atomic bomb
Nuremberg Trials after the end of World War II, many of the Nazi War Criminals were tried and convicted of crimes against humanity and subsequently executed.
United Nations this organization was created after World War II to help maintain peace and tranquilly throughout the world. It has a military force to enforce its policies unlike the previous League of Nations.
United Nations "General Assembly" inside the U.N. all countries have the right to a membership in the United Nations.
United Nations "Security Council" inside the U.N., five nations serve as permanent member of this group.
United Nations Secretary General this person acts as the spokesperson for the United Nations.
Selective Service System this system is in place today and is responsible for military draft if one is necessary
Dwight D. Eisenhower this American General was the Supreme Commander of the Allies and more specifically the D-Day invasion.
Kristallnacht or "night of the broken glass" was the beginning of the end (Holocaust) for the Jewish people in Germany and throughout Europe.