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Final

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
What is the function of the semicircular canals? Equilibrium:rotational (angular) acceleration of the head
What is the function of the vestibule? equilibrium: static equilibrium and linear acceleration of the head
What is the function of the cochlea? hearing
Which structure connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland? the infundibulum
What are the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland and what are the functions? Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: stimulates the thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: stimulates the cortex of the adrenal
What are the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland and what are the functions? 2 Growth Hormone: Stimulates growth of muscle, bones and cartilage. Prolactin: Stimulates milk production from the mammary glands Follicle Stimulating Hormone: Females: stimulates initial egg development in the ovaries
What are the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland and what are the functions? 3 Follicle Stimulating Hormone: Females: stimulates initial egg development in the ovaries Males; Stimulates sperm production in the ovaries
What are the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland and what are the functions? 4 Luteinizing Hormone: Females: Stimulates final egg development and induces ovulation of the egg Males: Stimulates testosteroneproduction in the testis
What are the hormones produced by the posterior pituitary gland and what are the functions? Oxytocin: Stimulates the uterus muscles to contract and stimulates the release of milk from the mammary glands Antidiuretic Hormone: stimulates the kidneys to reabsorbs H2O.
Where is the location of the thyroid gland? In the neck
What are the hormones produced by the thyroid gland and what are the functions? Throxine and triiodothyronine= increase basal metabolic rate Calcitonin= decreases blood calcium levels
Where is the arenal gland located? Above the kidney
What is the hormones produced by the adrenal gland medulla and the functions? Adrenaline and noradrenaline 1. increases heart rates and blood pressure 2. Increases metabolic rates 3.causes bronchioles to dilate 4. decreases digestive system activity 5. decreases urine output from the kidney
What are the hormones produced by the adrenal gland cortex and the functions? Aldosterone=increases sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys which in turn regulates blood volume and blood pressure. Cortisone=stress response and also regulates body metabolism Dehydropiandosterone=early development of male sex organs
What are the hormones produced by the pancreas and what are the functions? Insulin= decreases blood glucose levels Glucagon= increases blood glucose levels
Where is the pancreas located? Located on the right side of the abdomen.
Which type of cancer is the most common lethal one in the U.S.A? Lung cancer
Know the names of the types of standard cancer therapy. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant
Define carcinomas cancers of the epithelial tissue
Define adenocarcinomas cancers of glandular epithelial cells
Define sarcomas cancers of muscle and connective tissues
Define leukemias cancers of the blood
define lymphomas cancers of lymphatic tissues
Which type of two genes DIRECTLY cause cancer? tumor supressor gene and proto-concogenes
Define oncology the study of cancer
Define tumor an abnormal mass cells/tissue
Define malignant cancerous tumor
Define benign non-cancerous tumor
Define angiogenesis the formation of new blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen to the tumor.
Define metastasis occurs when cells move into the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels and form new tumors at distant sites from the primary tumor
What is the standard information of autosomal dominant traits? Affected children will usually have an affected parent. Heterozygotes (Aa) are affected. Two affected parents can produce an unaffected child. Two unaffected parents will not have affected children. M&F are affected equally
What is the name of the specific disorders with autosomal dominant? Marfan syndrome,Huntington's disease, Osteogenesis imperfecta
What is the standard information with autosomal recessive? Affected children can have unaffected parents. Heterozygotes (Aa) have an unaffected phenotype. Two affected parents will always have affected children.
What is the standard information with autosomal recessive? 2 Affected individuals with homozygous unaffected mates will have unaffected children. Close relatives who reproduce are more likely to have affected children. Both males and females are affected with equal frequency.
What is the name of the specific disorders with autosomal recessive? Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis.
What is the standard information of sex-linked traits? More males than females are affected. An affected son can have parents who have the normal phenotype.
What is the standard information of sex-linked traits? 2 For a female to have the characteristic, her dad must also have it. Her mom must have it or be a carrier. The characteristic often skips a generation from the grandfather to the grandson. If a woman has the characteristic, all of her sons will have it.
What is the name of the specific disorders with sex linked traits? Color blindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy Fragile X syndrome, and Hemophilia
Pauta Syndrome (disorder number and characteristic) Trisomy 13 and Multiple defects with death by 1 to 3 months
Edwards syndrome (disorder number and characteristic) Trisomy 18 and Ear deformities,heart defects, spasticity, and other damage; death by age 1
Downs syndrome (disorder number and characteristic) Trisomy 21 and folds of skin above the eye, varying degrees of mental retardation, short statures and cardiac deformities.
Turner's Syndrome (disorder number and chracteristic) XO and Short stature, webbed neck, sometimes slight mental retardation, ovaries degenerate in late embryonic life  leading to rudimentary sexual characteristics.
Klinefelters Syndrome (disorder number and characteristic) XXY and slowly degenrating testis and have enlarged breasts.
Jacobs Syndrome (disorder number and characteristic) XYY and unusually tall with heavy acne, some tendency to mental retardation.
Poly X syndrome (disorder number and characteristic) XXX and despite 3 x chromosomes usually fertile, fairly normal females
Tissue/structure of Ectoderm nervous tissue and epidermis of skin
Tissue/structure of Mesoderm blood, muscles, bones, and other connective tissue derivatives
Tissue/structure of Endoderm epithelial lining of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and several other organs; endothelial lining of blood vessels
Define zygote right after fertilization
Define embryo from fertilization through week 8
Define fetus from week 9 till birth
Define amniotic sac surrounds the embryo thin membrane with fluid surrounds the embryo/fetus protection and supports the embryo
Define yolk sac initial surrounds the embryo get smaller over time eventually becomes the outer portion of the umbilical cord
Define chorion develops from the syncytiotrophoblast fetal portion of the placenta transfer ions (atoms) and small compounds to/from embryo/fetus and mom
Define allantois inner portion of the umbilical cord and Contains blood vessels transfer compounds to/from embryo/fetus and mom
Define rods allow vision in dim light
Define cones Allows color vision and high acuity
Define amacrine cells support the rods and cones
Define bipolar cells Generates/carries nerve impulses
Define horizontal cells supports the rods and cones
Define optic nerve carries info from the eye to the chiasma
Define optic tract sends info from chiasma to the brain
Define optic chiasma X shaped structure where the two optic nerves cross over each other
Define thalamus Relay center between sensory stimuli and cerebrum (expect smell)
What is the function of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum? vision
What are the structures in the fibrous layer of the eye? sclera and cornea
Define sclera Provides shape for eye, muscle attachment
Define cornea Protects eye, lets light enter
Define choroid Prevents scattering of light rays
Define ciliary body Support/Attachment of lens
Define iris Eye “Color”
Define pupil Center of Iris, Controls light entering eye
Define retina Ganglion Cells :Generates/carries nerve impulses Bipolar Cells :Generates/carries nerve impulses
Define lens Directs light retina
Define anterior compartment with aqueous humor Supplies nutrients to lens/cornea
Define posterior compartment with vitreous humor Transmits light, supports lens, and intra ocular eyeball pressure
Define lacrimal glands Produces lacrimal fluid
Define eyebrows Protects eye
Define eye lashes Protects eye
Define eye ilds Protects eye
Define ovaries Produces eggs (ova) and estrogen and progesterone
Define uterine tubes Site of fertilization, movement of ovum (unfertilized egg) or Zygote (fertilized egg) to uterus for implantation
Define uterus Menstruation, Implantation of a zygote, Development of embryo/fetus, Labor- birth of the fetus
Define cervix inferior portion of the uterus, connects to vagina
Define vagina Passage way into of the female reproductive system for sperm/penis to fertilize the egg, Passage way out of the female reproductive system for menstruation and fetus during birth
Define mammary glands Lactation (production and release) of milk after birth
In the male vas deferens carries ___, the ejactulatory duct carries ___, and the urethra carries ____. sperm, semen, semen and urine
The functional unit of the kidney is the _____ and is composed of ____ tissue. nephron, epithelial
Define glomerulus forms ultrafiltrate of plasma
Define proximal convoluted tubule bulk reaborptions of solutes and H2O and secreiton of solutes (except K+) and organic acids and bases
Define descending Limp of Loop of Henle bulk reabsorption of H2O.
Define ascending Limb of Loop of Henle reabsorption of NaCl
Define clevage rapid meiotic division of young embryo
Define morula young embryo resulting from clevage
When and where does fertilization occur? Fertilization occurs when the sperm penetrates the egg and this happens in the fallopian tubes.
When and where does implantation occur? Implantation occurs when the blastocyst is attached to the endometrium
What is the structure of the nervous eye? ciliary body and retina
The renal corpuscle is composed of the ____ and the ____ and is the site of ___. glomerulus, Bowman's Capsule, filtration
When and where does implantation occur in the female reproductive system occur? occurs after 5-6 days after fertilization in the uterus
Define afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerulus
Define efferent arteriole carries blood away from the glomerulus
Function of Bowman's capsule filtration
Function of proximal convoluted tubule reabsorpttion
Function of Ascednging/Descending Limb of Loop of Henle concentration/dilution
Function of Distal convoluted tubule secretion
Function of Collecting Duct concentration/dilution
Function of Vasa Recta just a fancy name for the portion of the peritubular capillaries that surround the Loop of Henle
Which part of the neprhon are under hormonal control? The distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct
Which hormones control the parts of the nephrons under hormonal control? The distal concoluted tubule=aldosterone Collecting duct=ADH
What is the name of the anterior pituitary hormones in the testis? FSH and LH
What is the function of the anterior pituitary hormones inside the testis? FSH produces sperm LH secretes testoterone
Where is the specific site of function of the anterior pituitary hormones inside the testis? FSH= seminiferous tubules LH=interstitial cells
Define glomerulus In the kidney, a tiny ball-shaped structure composed of capillary blood vessels actively involved in the filtration of the blood to form urine.
Define blastocyst its the continued development of the morula which then is implanted in the uterus.
Created by: osana_coco4