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Science #5

Grades 5 to 8

Percentage of the earth covered by water 75%
Fraction of the earth covered by water 3/4
Seas are usually parts of ____________. oceans
Average ocean depth 2 miles (10,560 feet)
Ocean trenches can be as deep as ______ miles. 6
Oceans and seas contain _____% of the world's water, including water vapor, underground water, and ice caps & glaciers. 97
A ________ is a large body of water partly surrounded by land. gulf
A ________ is a smaller body of water partly surrounded by land and is supposed to be smaller than a gulf. bay
Shallow, rocky "shelf" that slopes down from the shoreline before dropping off at a continent's edge continental shelf
Just off the continental shelf, the shelf drops off deeply into trenches or flat, sandy expanses called _______________ __________. abyssal plains
Deepest part of the Pacific Ocean Mariana Trench (35,800 feet)
Sunlit uppermost layer of the ocean's water photic
Twilight middle layer of the ocean's water bathyl
Midnight bottom layer of the ocean's water abyssal
_________ ocean currents are flowing streams of water that run through the oceans caused by winds blowing on the water's surface. Surface
_________ ocean currents are flowing streams of water that run deep within the oceans caused by movement of dense, icy polar water toward the tropics and along ocean bottom Deep-water
_________ are swells and depressions of water moving on the surface of oceans, seas, lakes, and other bodies of water Waves
What is the main cause of ocean waves? wind flowing across the water
The amount of time that the wind blows, the wind's strength, or the amount of open water the wind blows over determines the size of the wave
Caused by pull of the moon's gravity on earth tides
Tides rise and fall _____ every lunar day. twice
Another name for low tide ebb
Another name for high tide flood
Occurs 2x a month during the new and full moon high spring tide
Occurs during quarter moons neap tide
Largest lake in North America Lake Superior
Great Salt Lake in Utah is _____ the size that it once was. 1/3
Water collects in craters left by volcanoes crater lake
Ice from glaciers covers depressions (low areas) in the landscape. The melts and forms a lake. glacial lake
Shifts in tectonic plats on earth's surface form depressions that fill with water. rift valley lake
People dig depressions and fill them with water often diverted from rivers and lakes. artificial lake
Bodies of water that begin at a source and flow between banks of earth to a mouth where they empty into a larger body of water. rivers
What are the three parts, or courses, of a river? upper, middle, and estuary
Where two rivers meet confluence
Rivers or streams that flow into larger rivers or streams tributary
The Missouri River is a tributary of the ______________ River. Mississippi
The confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers is close to ______________. St. Charles, Missouri
The longest river in North America Mackenzie River in Canada
The longest river in South America Amazon River
The longest river in Eurasia Yangtze (Chang) in China
The longest river in Africa Nile River
What direction does the Nile River flow? north
The bigger the wheel, the _________ you go. faster
The smaller the wheel, the ________ you go. slower
Fill high mountain valleys moving a few inches to a few feet per day valley glaciers
Form on ice caps in freezing polar regions and slide into the ocean waters when warmer temperatures occur continental glaciers
Huge blocks of ice floating in the ocean water icebergs
Rocks and dirt carried by glaciers and left when the glacier retreats moraines
What percentage of our atmosphere is made up of nitrogen? 78
What percentage of our atmosphere is made up of oxygen? 21
Part of earth's atmosphere that is the border between Earth and space at about 310 miles and where satellites revolve exosphere
Part of atmosphere that is about 150 miles more above Earth's surface composed of electrically charged particles thermosphere
Electrically charged particles in the atmospheric layer of the thermosphere that bounce radio waves back to earth's surface ions
Part of atmosphere that is about 50 miles above Earth's surface and the temperature is under -100*F mesophere
Part of atmosphere that is about 30 miles above Earth's surface where icy winds blow through the lower part speeding supersonic jets on their destination stratosphere
What layer is within the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun? ozone
Part of atmosphere that is 12 miles thick at the equator and 5 miles thick at the poles; more than 1/2 of the atmospheric gases are within the 4 miles closest to Earth's surface troposphere
Weight of the air pressing down on the earth's surface atmospheric pressure (air pressure)
The air exerts about ___ pounds of pressure on every square inch of your body. 15
Atmospheric pressure usually ________ as the amount of moisture in the air increases. decreases
Atmospheric pressure usually decreases with ____________. altitude
Usual weather in an area over a long period of time climate
Physical landforms topography
People in the mountains will have ________ temperatures than those people living at sea level. cooler
What type of climate does Missouri have? temperate forest/cool grassland
Huge body of air spread over hundreds of miles in which the temperature & humidity are nearly the same throughout air mass
Measure of hotness and coldness in the air temperature
Temperature at which water vapor changes to liquid water dew point
Cloud in the air near the ground fog
Boundary between two air masses front
Amount of moisture, or water vapor, in the air humidity
Any moisture that falls from the sky precipitation
Movement of air across the atmosphere wind
Why are the tropics warm and the poles frigid? The angle of the earth allows the tropics to face the sun more directly.
When it's summer in the United States, it is ________ in Brazil. winter
Cold air moves under a warm air mass; clouds and possible thunderstorms occur cold front
Warm air slides over a cold air mass; precipitation generally occurs warm front
Warm and cold air masses meet; but neither goes over or below the other; clouds occur stationary front
When a cold front catches up to warm front and the warm air mass is forced up; clouds and precipitation occur occluded front
Wind speed, or velocity, is measured by the ____________ Scale. Beaumont
Warm dry winds that flow down the side of the Rocky and and Cascade Mountains in the western United States chinook
Cool, very dry winds form over the Sahara Desert in Northern Africa and blow W to SW from Dec. to Feb. harmattan
Rainy winds that control the climate of Asia are the result of different speeds of heating & cooling of land & water monsoon
Italian name for winds that blow north from the Sahara and pick up moisture over the Mediterranean Sea sirocco
Warm dry winds that flow down the side of the Alps in Europe foehns
More than ___ times the more water is in water vapor than in the rivers. 10
What is the water cycle? evaporation, condensation, precipitation
Wispy clouds high in the atmosphere cirrus
Big, puffy clouds cumulus
Layers of clouds stratus
Water vapor that condenses on surfaces when the temperature cools enough to change water vapor into liquid water dew
Light rain of tiny water droplets; easier to feel than to see drizzle
Rain that freezes when it lands, often coating buildings, trees, roads, and cars with a layer of ice freezing rain
Ice balls that fall during some thunderstorms hail
Raindrops that freeze into ice pellets before they hit the ground sleet
When the temperature cools enough to change water vapor into liquid water dew point
Warm, low-pressure weather systems surrounded by cooler air cyclones
Cyclones exceeding 75 mph and originate in the Caribbean Sea hurricanes
Hurricanes in the Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line typhoon
Cyclone on land tornado
Created by: marybahner
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