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NAU A&P 15

NAU Cardiovascular

QuestionAnswer
Describe Blood Flow Rt Atrium- Tricuspid Valve- Rt Ventricle- Pulmonary Semilunar Valve-Pulm Trunk- Pulm Arteries- Lungs-Pulm Veins-Left Atrium-Bicuspid Valve- Lt Ventricle- Aortic Semilunar Valve- Ascending Aorta- Aortic Arch-Descending Aorta-Organ-Inf/Sup Vena Cava
Coverings of the heart, inside out Endocardium, Myocardium, Epicardium/Visceral Pericardium, Pericardical Cavity with Pericardial fluid, Parietal Pericardium, Pericardial sac/ Fibrous Pericardium
Makes up Pericardium, inside out Serous Pericardium and Fibrous Pericardium
Makes up Serous Pericardium Epicardium/Visceral Pericardium, Pericardical Cavity with Pericardial fluid, Parietal Pericardium
Made up of simple squamous epithelial tissue, inside the heart that coats valves and chambers Endocardium
The muscle wall, when given a % capacity, this is the amount of muscle left that is viable. In atrium is smaller and in the ventricles is bigger. Myocardium
Damage to this muscle of the heart is called: Myocardial Infarction
Serous membrane sac that surrounds the heart and divides it in half Pericardium or Serous pericardium
Outermost layer of the heart proper. Is a thin membrane. Visceral pericardium or Epicardium
Holds pericardial fluid, which functions to reduce friction during beating, so the heart does not erode. Pericardial Cavity
Outermost layer of the sac, separates heart from the rest of the cavity. Attaches to top of the diaphragm. Fibrous Pericardium
Is created by the pericardial sac. Mediastinum
Spaces in the heart Chambers
Upper portion of heart that accepts blood Atrial
Lower portion of the heart that moves blood Ventricle
Divisions of the heart Chambers, Great Vessels, Valves
Name the great vessels Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Pulmonary Trunk, Aortic Arch
Chamber divisions: Upper and Lower
Types of valves: Tricuspid, Bicuspid (Mitral), Pulmonary Valve, Aortic Valve
Brings deoxygenated blood to the heart from the head, neck, upper extremities and top half of thoracic cavity and drains the blood into the right atrium. Superior Vena Cava
Brings blood to the heart from the legs, lower extremities and lower half of the thoracic cavity. Inferior Vena Cava
Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the pulmonary arteries that lead to each lung. Pulmonary Trunk
Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic Arch
Atricular valve on the right side of the heart. Has 3 flaps called chordae tendinae, which keeps the valves from snapping back & from causing backflow by closing the valve. Anchors to papillary muscles. Tricuspid Valve
Valve on the left side, has 2 flaps, blood returning to lungs. Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve
Valve which has 3 flaps, which are half-mooned shape. Names after where the blood is going. Is going to the lungs. Pulmonary Valves
Has a flap that opens and closes, keeps the blood flowing in one direction. Valve
Known as big vessels Trunk
Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute. Is efficiency and speed Cardiac Output
Cardiac Output is made up of: Diastole and Systole
Sound of relaxation Diastole
Sound of contraction, moving blood to its destination Systole
A defect in how the valves open and close Heart Murmur
Amount of blood ejected from the ventricle with each beat. Efficiency is reduced. Stroke Volume
The speed at which the heart beats Heart Value
CO=HRxSV (Blood Pressure) Cardiac Output Equation
Classifications of Heart Disease Endocarditis, Myocarditis, Pericarditis, Congenital Heart Disease, Rheumatic Heart Disease, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), Heart Failure
Inflammation of the lining of the heart Endocarditis
Inflammation of the muscle of the heart Myocarditis
Inflammation of the sac. Can burn off fluid in the sac, causing chest pains Pericarditis
Problems with the heart that started at birth Congenital Heart Disease
Brought on by Rheumatic fever, which created scar tissue over the heart values Rheumatic Heart Disease
Involves the formation of plaque along the vessel walls CAD or Coronary Artery Disease
The inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions Heart Failure
Risk factors of heart disease that CANNOT be modified Age, Body Type, Heredity, Gender
Risk factors of heart disease that CAN be modified Smoking, Physical activity, blood pressure, diet, weight, diabetes & gout
Cardiac conduction system 1. Synoatrial node (SA Node) 2. Atrial Ventricular Node (AV Node) 3. Atrial Ventricular Bundle or Bundle of His 4. Purkinje Fibers
Pacemaker Synoatrial node (SA Node)
Little cluster of nervous tissue between atrium & ventricles. Located in inner atrial septum. Functions to delay the impulse, so the atria can drain completely before the ventricles contract. Atrial Ventricular Node (AV Node
Runs along the inner ventricular septum on either side & everything terminates at the Purkinje Fibers Atrial Ventricular Bundle or Bundle of His
Permeates each end of the myocardial cell, so they contract at the same time Purkinje Fibers
Heart measurements p-wave, t-wave, QRS
Depolarization of the atria p-wave
Repolarization of the ventricles t-wave
Depolarization of the ventricles QRS
Blood vessels or vascularization of tissues Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins
Large vessels that carry blood away from the heart toward tissues. Arteries
Smaller vessels that carry blood away from the heart toward tissues. Arterioles
Tiny, thin walled vessels that allow exchanges from the vessels to & from the tissues Capillaries
Smaller vessels that carry blood toward the heart from the tissues. Venules
Large vessels that carry blood toward the heart from the tissues. Have one-way directional flow with valves that shut down to keep blood flow in one direction. Veins
Lines blood vessels Tunica Interna
Gives elasticity to the artery. Gives the ability to relax & contract in conjunction with pressure from fluid of the heart. Tunica Media
The outer layer of blood vessels Tunca Externa
Makes up vessel structures Arteries and Veins
There are no veins in these areas of the body. Abdominal and Thoracic
All venous names are similar except for these names: Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Internal Jugular, External Jugular
Major vascular branches or arteries Brachiocephalic Trunk, Left Common Carotid, Left Subclavian, Thoracic Aorta, Abdominal Aorta
First branch off the aortic arch Brachiocephalic Trunk
Artery which leads to the left side of the head. Optimal place to check pulse Left Common Carotid Artery
Artery which goes under clavicle to left arm Left Subclavian Artery
Artery which supplies esophagus and intercostals; branches to the chest Thoracic Aorta
Artery which leads to abdomen and GI tract Abdominal Aorta
Artery which leads to right side of the head Right Common Carotid Artery
Artery which goes under the clavicle and leads to right arm Right Subclavian Artery
Brachiocephalic Trunk divides into: Right Common Carotid Artery and Right Subclavian Artery
Abdominal aorta divides into: Phrenic Artery, Celiac Trunk, Superior Mesenteric Artery, Inferior Mesenteric Artery, Renal Arteries
Artery which brings blood supply to diaphragm Phrenic Artery
Artery which goes to the organs of the upper digestive tract Celiac Trunk
Artery which gives blood supply to first part of the GI tract, small intestine and first half of the colon/large intestine Superior Mesenteric Artery
Artery that gives blood supply to the lateral half of colon/large intestine, sigmoid, rectum, anal canal and rectum. Also handles nutrients and wastes. Inferior Mesenteric Artery
Paired arteries that go to each kidney proper. Renal Arteries
Celiac trunk divides into: Splenic artery, Gastric artery, Common hepatic artery
Artery which goes to the spleen Splenic artery
Artery which goes to the stomach Gastric artery
Artery which goes to the liver Common hepatic artery
Renal artery divides and splits into: Is usually paired Renal arteries and Supra adrenal arteries
Paired arteries that go to adrenal glands Supra adrenal arteries
The force of ventricular contraction which is transmitted as a wave of increased pressure in the artery. Pulse
Forms the inner lining of the fibrous pericardium or pericardial sac Parietal Pericardium
Created by: FKrouse