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114 METOC

METOC

TermDefinition
How does Naval Oceanography support the Information Dominance mission? weather affects all areas of information dominance. Collection capabilities can be adversely affected by the weather
US Naval Observatory (USNO) responsible for astronomical data and standard of time
Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Responsible for issuing tropical cyclone warnings for Pacific and Indian Oceans
Naval Oceanography Operations Command (NOOC) responsible for advising the impact of ocean and atmospheric conditions in every theater and operation
Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) Provides relevant and timely worldwide meteorology and oceanography support to US and coalition forces
Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) maximizes sea power by applying relevant oceanographic knowledge in support of US national security
Geospatial Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) weather forecasting GOES 10: 60 degrees, South America GOES 11- 135 degrees, western US satellite GOES 12- 75 degrees, eastern portion of US to west coast of Africa GOES 13- 105 Degrees west, backup for 11 and 12
Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) Next generation circles every 100 minutes, collect global data daily, 6 in orbit
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) low Earth orbiting satellites provided the military with important environmental information
National Polar Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) next generation of low earth orbiting environmental satellites
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite designed to help our understanding of the water cycle in the atmosphere
Wind Direction average direction from which the wind is blowing during a specified period
Wind Speed average rate of air motion
Temperature sensible heat in a substance Ambient Air- dry- bulb temperature Wind chill- temp. required under no-wind conditions that equal the cooling effect of air and wind Heat Stress- measure of how hot air feels based on temperature and humidity
Precipitation includes all forms of moisture that falls to Earth's surface
Relative Humidity ratio of how much water vapor is in the air compared to the amount of water vapor at current temperatures
Sky Condition "state-of-the-sky" equates to one of the 27 internationally recognized sky states
Atmospheric pressure refers to the pressure exerted by the column of air on any point of the Earth's surface
Air Mass large volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content
Cold Front leading edge of a cooler mass or air, replacing a warmer mass of air
Warm Front leading edge of an advancing mass of warm air, separates warm air from the colder air ahead
Occluded Front Formed during the process or cyclogenesis when a cold front overtakes a warm front
Restricted Visibility obstructions to vision that reduce visibility below 7 statute miles
Fog suspension of small visible water droplets in the air
Sunrise/Sunset refers to the times when the upper edge of the edge is on the horizon
Moonrise/ Moonset computed for exactly for same circumstances as sunrise/sunset.
Lunar Illumination amount of light illuminated to the Earth based on the phase of the moon
Tropical Depression originate at tropical latitudes winds less than 34 knots
Tropical Storm winds less than 34-63 knots
Hurricane/ Typhoon Winds of at least 64 knots
Thunderstorm form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and thunder
Tornado/ Waterspout violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface and cumulonimbus cloud
Funnel Cloud Funnel shaped cloud of condensed water droplets, associated with a rotating column of wind and extending form the base of the cloud but does not reach the surface
Effect of VISIBILITY on military operations biggest impact are on shore/ shipboard flight ops
Effect of PRECIPITATION on military operations impacts radar performance
Effect of WINDS on military operations impact on all operations
Effect of CLOUD COVER on military operations impacts all major operations
Effect of TEMPERATURE and HUMIDITY on military operations biggest impact on ground troop movement and spec ops.
Ocean Eddies independent circulations or rings of cold water or warm water Cold Eddies- south Gulf stream, counterclockwise circulation Warm Eddies- north Gulf stream, drift into Labrador current maintain clockwise rotation
Bathythermograph measurement and recording of subsurface water temperature at various depths
Bioluminescence Luminescent bacteria that develops in great masses in the sea causing a general bluish green glow in the water
Sea Wave wind wave Waves generated by wind in local area
Wave Height vertical distance from crest to trough of the wave
Wave Period The time, Sec, that it takes for a complete wave cycle to pass a given fixed point
Swell Wave seas that have moved out and away from the area in which they were formed
Sea Surface Temperature the water temperature close to the surface
Ebb Tide current that flows AWAY from the shore with a falling tide
Flood Tide current that flows TOWARD the shore with rising tide
High Tide Rises over several hours
Low Tide Falls over several hours
Open Ocean Current continuous, directed movement of ocean water generated by the forces acting upon this flow
Littoral Current currents that occur in surf zone and are caused by waves approaching the beach at an angle
Rip Current caused by the return flow of water from the beach
Surf Zone area from the water up rush outward to the point at which waves first show any indication of breaking
Spilling Breaker occur with gentle and flat beach slopes
Plunging Breaker breakers occur with a moderate to steep beach slope
Surging Breaker normally seen only with a very step beach slope
Ocean Front interface between two water masses of different physical characteristics
Ocean Bottom Topography Four major physiographic morphological: ridges, trenches, seamounts, and guyots
Ocean Bottom Composition various types of sediments mixed with dissolved shells and bones of marine organisms
Discuss how the ocean surface, subsurface and littoral, impacts the environment to operations These effects determine the mode and range of sound propagation and thus control the effectiveness of both short-range acoustic systems
Mixed Thermal Layer upper layer of the 3-layered ocean model
Thermocline Thermal Layer central layer of the 3 layered model
Deep Thermal Layer bottom of the layers Constant cold temperatures
Temperature effect on the transmission of sound in seawater sound speed decreases at lower water temperatures and increases at higher temperatures
Pressure effect on the transmission of sound in seawater pressure increases with depth and sound speed increases with high pressure
Salinity effect on the transmission of sound in seawater effect on sound speed is greatest where there is a significant influx of fresh water or where evaporation creates high salinity
Impact of environmental conditions to geospatial intelligence METOC data is considered an intelligence layer of the GEOIN information base
Environmental condition impacts on ASW sound propagation and detection effectiveness of both short/ long range acoustic systems can be enhanced or degraded
Environmental conditions impacts on NSW target restrictions due to time of day, terrain restrictions, adverse weather, seasonal and temperature effects
Environmental conditions impacts on Mine Warfare sound speed that is highly dependent upon salinity
Environmental conditions impacts on Air Defense Operations ceiling, visibility, temperature, and winds have the greatest effect
Environmental conditions impacts on Information warfare forecasts will be generated at the lowest level possible within the battle group
Environmental conditions impacts on Humanitarian assistance/ disaster relief ops natural geography and manmade features affect how and where we can supply relief efforts
Environmental conditions impacts on chemical, biological and nuclear warfare CBRNE material may disperse chemicals, biological or radiological agents or toxic materials by wind
Environmental conditions impacts on strike warfare Visibility, Precipitation, winds, cloud cover and temperature and humidity
Effects that atmospheric conditions have on electromagnetic propagation of radar beam Standard refraction, super- refraction, sub- refraction, and trapping
Standard Refraction Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed
Super- Refraction Frequently caused by temperature inversions, bends the beam toward the earth and can cause the radar to detect ground returns from distances far exceeding the normal ground clutter area
Sub- refraction bends the beam away from the earth
Trapping ducting in evaporative ducts, surface- based ducts, and low- elevated ducts, provided the victim radar antennas are within the elevated duct
Small Craft Weather Conditions issued in harbors, inland waters and coast OPAREAS
Gale Weather Conditions Wind speeds of 35 knots or higher
Storm Weather Conditions Wind speeds of 50 knots or higher
Local Wind Advisory Weather Conditions Winds exceeding 25 mph
High Seas Weather Conditions issued every 12 hours whenever actual heights in an ocean area of N. Hemisphere equal/ exceed 12ft
Severe Thunderstorm/ Tornado Weather Conditions issued when weather is favorable for development of severe thunderstorms or tornados
Thunderstorm Weather Conditions issued when trained storm spotters or a Doppler weather radar indicate a strong thunderstorm
Hurricane/ Typhoon Weather Conditions warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds 64 knots or greater
Extreme Temperature Weather Conditions Warnings when the heat index and wind- chill are to the extreme
Heavy Snow Weather Conditions blizzards, heavy snow, freezing rain or drizzle and sleet
Flash Flood Weather Conditions rapid flooding of low- lying areas, rivers, dry lakes, and basins
Hazardous Surf Weather Conditions national weather service bulletin advising hazardous wave conditions which could cause injury, death, or property damage
Tsunami Weather Conditions Ocean wave generated by a submarine earthquake, volcano, or landslide
Earthquake Weather Conditions movement of the Earth's crust cause by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic activity
TCOR 5 Destructive winds within 96 hours
TCOR 4 Destructive winds within 72 hours
TCOR 3 Destructive winds within 48 hours
TCOR 2 Destructive winds within 24 hours
TCOR 1 Destructive winds within 12 hours
Nautical Almanac Describes a selection or celestial bodies for the purpose of enabling navigators to use celestial navigation at sea
Astronomical Almanac Contains solar systems ephermis and catalogs or selected stellar and extragalactic objects