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A&P2 Chapter 28-29

The Reproductive System

Which embryonic germ layer forms the linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts? endoderm
If fertilization occurs, the ______ is maintained because the embryo secretes ______. corpus, luteum; human chorionic gonadotrophin
The hormone that promotes a small number of primary follicles within the ovary to grow and mature each month is? follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
The innermost mucosa layer of the uterus is called the? endometrium
The gene for normal skin pigment (A) can also code for the recessive trait of albinism (a). An albino man and a homozygous normal pigment woman marry and have four children. What is the phenotype of the children? heterozygous
How many chromosomes do human somatic cells contain? 46
The period of gestation that is characterized by rapid fetal growth and fat deposition is the _______ trimester. third
The hormone produced by the corpus luteum that helps maintain pregnancy is called _______. progesterone
The gonads produce sex cells, also known as? gametes
The ducts or tubes responsible for receiving the ovulated oocyte and providing the site for fertilization are the? uterine (fallopian) tubes
The early stage of embryonic development during which rapid mitotic cell divisions occur as the zygote travels down the uterine (fallopian) tube is called? cleavage
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes are called what? autosomes
Differentiation among blastomeres is the result of? an unequal distribution of regulatory molecules in the cytoplasm of the ovum
The inner cell mass of the blastocyte will? form the embryo
Thick, clear mucus that cleanses the urethra of acidic urine is produced by the? bulbourethral glands (Cowper's)
A __________ allele will always be expressed regardless of what the other allele happens to be. dominant
The male external genitalia include the _______ and the ________. scrotum; penis
The _________ gland surrounds the upper portion of the urethra just below the junction with the urinary bladder. prostate
What is the process whereby gametes from each parent fuse to produce a new cell? fertilization
Which layer of the uterus serves as the site of implantation? endometrium
The extraembryonic membrane that forms blood is the? yolk sac
A mother has a lot of milk stored in the breast and mammary glands but cannot seem to expel the milk for her newborn. Her doctor thinks that the cause may be? low levels of oxytocin
A mature ovarian follicle that is ready to be ejected from an ovary is called a? vesicular (Graafian) follicle
The first menstrual period, which usually occurs at approximately age 13, is called? menarche
If a color-blind (X-linked recessive trait) man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait, what proportion of their male offspring can be expected to be color blind? 25%
The process by which a mature egg is ejected from the ovary is called? ovulation
The glands that produce a thick, yellowish secretion which nourishes and activates sperm are the? seminal glands (vesicles)
The process of creating female gametes is called? oogenesis
The mesoderm and the trophoblast combine to form the? chorion
Spermatogenesis is directly stimulated by? both FSH and testosterone
What are the X and Y chromosomes known as? autosomes
What is the function of the amniotic fluid? allows fetus to move freely, maintains intrauterine temp, and protects fetus from injury
Which of the following is a critical even of the first trimester? cleavage, implantation, placentation and embryogenesis
What is the function of the scrotum? maintain the testes at 1-3c cooler than body temp
The hormone testosterone is produced by the _______ cells of the testes. interstitial
Sperm are formed in tightly coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules that are found within each ________. testes
Days 6-14 of the uterine (menstrual) cycle are known as the ___________ phase. This phase concludes with ovulation. proliferative
In _________, implantation occurs somewhere other than in the uterus. ectopic pregnancy
The solid ball of cells that has been likened to a mulberry is called a? morula
The helmet-like region of the sperm that is similar to a large lysosome and assists penetration of the egg is called the? acrosome
The stage of labor that involves the delivery of the infant is the? expulsion stage
Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus. (1) ductus deferens (2) urethra (3) ejaculatory duct (4) epididymis epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
The infant is delivered during the second stage of labor known as the __________ stage. expulsion
The follicle-cell capsule surrounding an ovulated secondary oocyte is called the? corona radiata
What is the role of the follicle-stimulating hormone? stimulates the development of a primary follicle (oocytes)
The narrow outlet of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is the? cervix
The hormone that causes pelvic ligaments and the pubis symphysis to relax, widen, and become more flexible during pregnancy is called the? relaxin
By day 12 of embryotic development, mesoderm begins to form through? gastrulation
The series of events that expel the infant from the uterus are referred to collectively as? labor
What is the order for the stages of sperm development? mitosis, first meiosis, second meiosis, spermiogenesis
Male sex chromosomes are represented as? XY
The hormone called the hormone of pregnancy, inhibiting uterine contractions, is? progesterone
The process that streamlines spermatids into sperm is known as? spermiogenesis
Which of the following cells could be fertilized? secondary oocyte
Which of the following is NOT a part of a male's testis? ejaculatory duct
A ______ allele is expressed only when homozygous. recessive
Trace the pathway of sperm through the duct system during ejaculation. Remember SEVEN UP! S-Seminiferous tubules E-Epididymis V-Vas deferens E-Ejaculatory duct N-NOTHING (just to help remember SEVEN UP) U-Urethra P-Penis
The distal portion of the male urethra that runs the length of the penis is the? spongy urethra
A fertilized egg, which represents the first cell of a new individual, is called a? zygote
The period of life between 10 and 15 years of age is known as ______. It is during this time that the reproductive organs grow to their adult size and become functional under the influence of hormones. puberty
Burrowing of the fertilized egg into the endometrium lining of the uterus is called? implantation
Menopause, which ends childbirth ability, is considered to have occurred when a woman? has gone a year without menstruation
Ovulation occurs in response to the release of an anterior pituitary hormone known as ________ hormone. luteinizing hormone (LH)
Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum is a condition known as? cryptorchidism
The female reproductive organs, known as ______, produce both eggs (ova) and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. ovaries
*SHORT ANSWER* What is the developmental fate of the inner mass of the blastocyst? eventually develops into the embryo
*SHORT ANSWER* Describe the key features of each trimester. 1st Trimester: baby's body structure and organ systems develop 2nd Trimester: baby's heartbeat can be heard 3rd Trimester: body organs have developed to function on their own and baby can move freely
The reproductive system includes? gonads and external genitalia, accessory glands and organs that secrete fluid, and ducts that receive/transport the gametes
The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa and is the site of sperm maturation is the? epididymis
The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following EXCEPT? secrete testosterone
Sperm production occurs in the? seminiferous tubules
The role of FSH in males is to? initiate sperm production in testes
The male reproductive system is MOST closely associated with which of the following systems? urinary
Primary spermatocyte matures into _____ spermatids having ____ chromosomes. four; 23
Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the MOST mature spermatozoa? in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct
If the prostate stopped secreting fluid, this would result in semen? with a higher than normal pH
A vasectomy would interfere with a man's ability to? deliver spermatozoa to the ejaculatory duct
Contraction of the dartos muscle? tightens the scrotal sac
The gradual modification of anatomical structures during the period from conception to maturity is? development
Proeolytic enzymes that digest a path through the zona pellucida include? hyaluronidase and acrosin
Contact of a sperm with the oocyte membrane causes? oocyte activation, completion of the second meiosis, and membrane fusion
Sperm cannot fertilize an oocyte until they? undergo capacitation
During amphimixis? the male and female pronuclei fuse
During early development, the Y chromosome produces a substance called "testis determining factor" (TFD) that causes the indifferent gonad to become a testis. This would be an example of? induction
Shortly after gastrulation, the body and organs of the embryo begin to form. This process is called? embryogenesis
Initially, the nutrients absorbed by the trophoblast easily reach the inner cell mass by simple? diffusion
During gestation, contraction of the myometrium is inhibited by _____, produced by the corpus luteum. progesterone
As a person ages, peristalsis and muscle tone decrease and some hormone levels decrease
If a color blind (X-linked recessive trait) man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait, what proportion of their male offspring can be expected to be color blind? 1/2
A woman who is heterozygous for blood type A mates with a man who is homozygous for blood type O. What blood type(s) would their children have? 50% type A, 50% type O
The traits of an individual controlled by his or her genotype are his or her? phenotype
Created by: jnipper