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Med Term CH11

Med Term zCH11 Special Senses

blephar/o eyelid
-cusis hearing
irid/o iris, colored part of eye
kerat/o horny, hard, cornea
myring/o tympanic membrane, eardrum
ophthalm/o eye, vision
-opia vision condition
opt/o eye, vision
ot/o ear, hearing
phak/o lens of eys
presby/o old age
retin/o retina, net
scler/o sclera, white of eye, hard
trop/o turn, change
tympan/o tympanic membrane, eardrum
eyes, combining forms opt/i, opt/o, optic/o, opthalm/o
eyes, primary functions receptor organ for sense of sight
iris, combining forms ir/i, ir/o, irid/o, irit/o
iris, primary functions controls amt of light entering eye
lens, combining forms phac/o, phak/o
lens, primary functions focuses rays of light on the retina
retina, combining forms retin/o
retina, primary functions converts light images into electrical impulses & transmits them to brain
lacrimal apparatus, combining forms dacryocyst/o, lacrim/o
lacrimal apparatus, primary functions accessory structures of the eyes that produce, store, & remove tears
ears, primary functions receptor organs for the sense of hearing; also help maintain balance
ears, combining forms acous/o, acoust/o, audi/o, audit/o, ot/o
outer ear, combining forms pinn/i
outer ear, primary functions transmits sound waves to the middle ear
middle ear, combining forms myring/o, tympan/o
middle ear, primary functions transmits sounds waves to inner ear
inner ear, combining forms laybyrinth/o
inner ear, primary functions receives sound vibrations & transmits them to the brain
OD (eyes) Right eye, oculus dexter
OS (eyes) Left eye, oculus sinister
OU (eyes) each eye, oculus uterque or both eyes, oculi uterque
oculus eye
oculi plural of oculus
adnexa of the eyes aka adnexa oculi; structures outside the eyeball & include orbit, eye muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, & lacrimal apparatus
adnexa accessory or adjoining anatomical parts of an organ
orbit aka eye socket; bony cavity of the skull that contains & protects the eyeball & its associated muscles, blood vessels, & nerves
eye muscles 6 arranged in 3 pairs, attached to eye for precise movement superior & inferior oblique, superior & inferior rectus, & lateral & medial rectus.
oblique angle that is slanted but not perpendicular or parallel
rectus straight
binocular vision occurs when muscles of both eyes work together in coordination to make normal depth perception possible
depth perception ability to see things in 3D
bin- two
what protects eyes from foreign matter, excessive light, & injuries upper & lower eyelids, together w/ eyebrows & eyelashes
canthus angle where upper & lower eyelids meet
canth corner of the eye
where are sebaceous glands on eyes edges of eyelids & are oil-producing
cilia small hairs, make up eyebrows & eyelashes
tarsus aka tarsal plate; framework w/in upper & lower eyelids that provides necessary stiffness & shape
tars edge of eyelid
conjunctiva transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid & continues to form a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eyeball
lacrimal apparatus aka tear apparatus; consists of structures that produce, store, & remove tears
lacrimation secretion of tears
lacrimal glands secrete lacrimal fluid (tears), located on underside of upper eyelid just above outer corner of each eye
lacrimal fluid aka tears, to maintain moisture on anterior surface of eyeball. Blinking distributes fluid across eye
lacrimal canal consists of duct @ inner corner of ea eye, collect tears & empty them into the lacrimal sacs. Crying is overflowing of tears
lacrimal sac aka tear sac; an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct
lacrimal duct aka nasolacrimal duct; passageway that drains excess tears into the nose
eyeball aka globe; 1" sphere w/ only about 1/6 of its surface visible
optic pertaining to the eye or sight
ocular pertaining to the eye
extraocular outside the eyeball
extra- outside
intraocular within the eyeball
intra- within
3 layers of the eyeball walls sclera, choroid, retina
sclera aka white of the eye; maintains shape of the eye & protects the delicate inner layers of tissue. Tough, fibrous tissue forms outer layer of eye, except part covered by cornea.
choroid aka choroid coat; opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels & provides blood supply for entire eye
opaque light cannot pass through this substance
retina sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye. Receives nerve impulses & transmits them to brain via optic nerve.
optic nerve aka second cranial nerve
2 segments of eyeball anterior & posterior
anterior chamber of eyeball (anterior segment of eye) located behind cornea & in front of iris
posterior chamber of eyeball (anterior segment of eye) located behind the iris & in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place
anterior segment of eye makes up front 1/3 of eyeball & is divided into anterior & posterior chambers
aqueous humor aka aqueous fluid; fills both anterior & posterior chambers of the anterior segment of eye, helps eye maintain shape & nourishes intraocular structures.
aqueous watery or containing water
humor any clear body liquid or semifluid substance
trabecular meshwork & canal of Schlemm constantly filters & drains aqueous humor
intraocular pressure IOP; measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye. Regulated by the rate @ which aqueous humor enters & leaves eye
posterior segment of eye makes up remaining 2/3 of eyeball
lines posterior segment of eye vitreous humor, aka vitreous gel
vitreous humor soft, clear, jelly-like mass that contains millions of fine fibers. Fibers are attached to the surface of the retina & help eye maintain its shape
functions of rods & cones of retina receive images that have passed through the lends of the eye, converted into nerve impulses & transmitted to brain via optic nerve
black & white/ color receptors of retina rods are the B&W, cones are color
macula aka macula lutea; clearly defined light-sensitive area in center of retina that is responsible for sharp central vision, "small spot"
fovea centralis pit in middle of macula where color vision is best b/c contains high concentration of cones & no rods
optic disk aka blind spot; small region in eye where nerve endings of retina enter optic nerve. Does not contain any rods or cones to convert images
optic nerve transmits nerve impulses from retina to brain
uvea pigmented layer of the eye w/ rich blood supply. Consists of choroid, ciliary body, & iris
ciliary body located w/in the choroid, set of muscles & suspensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina
the ciliary body produces... the aqueous humor that fills the anterior segment of the eye
ciliary body does this to focus on nearby objects muscles adjust the lens to make it thicker
ciliary body does this to focus on distanct objects muscles stretch the lens so it is thinner
iris colorful circular structure that surrounds the pupil. The contained muscles control amt of light allowed to enter eye through pupil
iris, to decrease amt of light entering eye muscles of iris contract, making opening of pupil smaller
iris, to increase amt of light entering eye muscles of iris relax, or dilate, making opening of pupil larger
dilate expanding any opening of the body
cornea transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris & pupil; primary structure focusing light rays entering eye
pupil black circular opening in center of iris that permits light to enter eye
lens clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses images on the retina. Lens is contained w/in a clear capsule located behind the iris & pupil
accommodation process whereby eyes make adjustments for seeing various objects at various distances
adjustments for "accommodation" contraction (narrowing) & dilation (widening) of pupil, movement of the eyes, & changes in shape of lens
convergence simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward one another. Occurs in an effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer
emmetropia normal relationship btw refractive power of the eye & shape of the eye that enables light to focus correctly on retina
emmetr in proper measure
-opia vision
refraction aka refractive power; ability of lens to bend light rays so they focus on retina
visual acuity ability to distinguish object details & shape @ a distance
ophthalmologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating the full spectrum of diseases & disorders of the eyes, from vision correction to eye surgery
optometrist holds Dr. of optometry degree & provides primary eye care, including diagnosing eye diseases & conditions & measuring accuracy of vision for corrective lenses
certified paraoptometric plays a support role to an optometrist
optician health care provider who designs, fits, & dispenses lenses for vision correction
ptosis aka blepharaptosis; drooping of upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
ptosis drooping or sagging
chalazion nodule or cyst, usually on upper eyelid, caused by obstruction in sebaceous gland. Type of granuloma.
hordeolum aka stye; pus-filled & often painful lesion on eyelid resulting from an acute infection in a sebaceous gland
blepharitis swelling of eyelid, often @ location of eyelash hair follicles
ectropion eversion of the edge of an eyelid, which usually affects lower lid, exposing inner surface of eyelid to irritation & preventing tears from draining properly
eversion turning outward
entropion inversion of edge of an eyelid, usually affects lower eyelid & causes eyelashes to rub against cornea.
inversion turning inward
periorbital edema swelling of the tissues surrounding the eye or eyes, can give face a bloated appearance & cause eyes to be partially covered by swollen eyelids. Associated w/ allergic reaction
conjunctivitis aka pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy
dacryoadenitis inflammation of the lacrimal gland caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Signs/ symptoms include sudden severe pain, redness, & pressure in orbit of eye.
subconjunctival hemorrhage bleeding btw conjunctiva & sclera, usually caused by an injury; creates a red area over the white of the eye.
xerophthalmia aka dry eye; drying of eye surfaces, including conjunctiva, b/c tear glands do not produce enough tears. Often assoc w/ aging
uveitis inflammation of the uvea causing swelling & irritation, complications can lead to permanent vision loss
iritis most common form of uveitis, inflammation of uvea that primarily affects structures in front of eye, condition has sudden onset & may last 6-8 wks
corneal abrasion injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea
corneal ulcer pitting of cornea caused by a infection or injury. Heal w/ treatment, but can leave cloudy scar that impairs vision
diabetic retinopathy damage to retina as a complication of uncontrolled diabetes.
keratitis inflammation of the cornea, condition may be due to many causes, including bacterial, viral, or fungal infections
keratoconus occurs when the cornea becomes irregular & cone shaped, causing blurring & distortion of vision
scleritis inflammation of the sclera, condition usually associated w/ infections, chemical injuries, or autoimmune diseases
anisocoria condition in which the pupils are unequal in size, condition may be congenital or caused by a head injury, aneurysm, or pathology of the CNS
anis/o unequal
cataract loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity, formation of most cataracts is assoc. w/ aging but could be due to injury or disease
floaters aka vitreous floaters; particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous humor & cast shadows on the retina. Often occur normally but may be indication of retinal detachment
photopsia the presence of what appears to be flashes of light, or flashers, often caused by damage to the eye or migraine headaches
miosis contraction of the pupil, normally in response to exposure to light but also possibly due to use of prescription or illegal drugs
mio- smaller
mydriasis dilation of the pupil, opposite of miosis, causes include diseases, trauma, & drugs
nystagmus involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by neurological injury or drug use
papilledema aka choked disk; swelling & inflammation of optic nerve @ point of entrance into eye through optic disk, swelling increased by intracranial pressure & can be due to a tumor pressing on optic nerve
papill nipple-like
retinal detachment aka detached retina; separation of some or all of the light-sensitive retina from choroid. If not treated, entire retina can detach, causing blindness.
retinitis pigmentosa progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night & peripheral vision, can be detected by presence of dark pigmented spots in retina
temporal arteritis form of vasculitis that can cause a sudden vision loss, usually in one eye
glaucoma group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that causes damage to retinal nerve fibers & optic nerve. Caused by blockage in flow of fluid out of eye.
open-angle glaucoma aka chronic glaucoma; most common form of glaucoma, the trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, causing buildup of pressure.
closed-angle glaucoma aka acute glaucoma; opening btw cornea & iris narrows so fluid cannot reach trabecular meshwork, narrowing can cause a sudden increase in intraocular pressure that produces severe pain, nausea, redness of eye, & blurred vision. Immediate treatment req
macular degeneration MD; gradually progressive condition in which macula @ center of retina is damaged, resulting in loss of central vision, but not total blindness
age-related macular degeneration occurs most frequently in older ppl & is leading cause of severe vision loss
dry macular degeneration accts for 90% of all AMD cases & is caused by the slow deterioration of cells of the macula
wet macular degeneration advanced form of dry AMD; new bv's growing beneath retina leak blood & fluid, damaging retinal cells. Small hemorrhages usually result in rapid & severe vision loss
diplopia aka double vision; perception of 2 images of a single object, sometimes a symptom of a serious underlying disorder such as MS or brain tumor
-opia vision condition
hemianopia blindness in 1/2 of the visual field
monochromatism aka color blindness; inability to distinguish certain colors in a normal manner, genetic condition caused by deficiencies in the absence of certain types of cones in retina
mon/o one
chromat color
nyctalopia aka night blindness; condition in which individual w/ normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing @ night
photophobia excessive sensitivity to light & can be result of migraines, excessive wearing of contact lenses, drug use, or inflammation
presbyopia condition of common changes in eyes that occur w/ aging. W/age near vision declines noticeably as lens becomes less flexible & muscles of ciliary body become weaker. No longer focus
strabismus disorder in which eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly, b/c eye muscles are unable to focus together
estropia aka cross-eyes; strabismus characterized by inward deviation of one or both eyes. Opposite of exotropia
eso- inward
trop turn
exotropia aka walleye; strabismus characterized by outward deviation of 1 eye relative to the other. Opposite of estropia
exo- outward
refractive disorder focusing problem that occurs when lens & cornea do not bend light so that it focuses properly on retina
ametropia any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on retina. Astigmatism, hyperopia, & myopia are all forms of ametropia
ametr out of proportion
astigmatism condition in which eye does not focus properly b/c of uneven curvatures of the cornea
hyperopia aka farsightedness; defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina, condition can occur in childhood but usually causes difficulty after age 40. Opposite of myopia
myopia aka nearsightedness; defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina, occurs most commonly around puberty. opposit hyperopia
my from Greek word for short-sighted
blindness inability to see
legal blindness point at which, under law, an individual is considered to be blind, best-corrected vision reduced to 20/200 or less
amblyopia dimness of vision or partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, w/o detectable disease of the eye
ambly dim or dull
scotoma aka blind spot; abnormal area of diminished vision surrounded by an area of normal vision
Snellen chart SC, usedto measure visual acuity. Results for ea eye recorded as a fraction w/ 20/20 being normal
first number, eye: 20/20 indicates the standard distance from chart, which is 20'
second number, eye 20/20 indicates deviation from the norm based on ability to read progressively smaller lines or letters on the chart
refraction test done to determine an eye's refractive error so that the best corrective lenses can be prescribed. Also refers to ability of lens to bend light rays so they focus on retina
diopter unit of measurement of a lens's refractive power
cover test exam of how the 2 eyes work together & is used to assess binocular vision. 1 eye @ a time is covered while patient focuses on an object across the room
visual field testing aka perimetry; performed to determine losses in peripheral vision. Blank sections in visual field can be symptomatic of glaucoma or an optic nerve disorder.
visual field testing process done by having the patient look straight ahead & indicate whether or not they can see an object or flash of light when presented in their periphery
peripheral occurring away from the center
ophthalmoscopy aka funduscopy; use of an ophthalmoscope to visually examine the fundus (back part) of the eye. Exam includes retina, optic disk, choroid, & blood vessels
dilation of the eyes required in preparation for ophthalmoscopic exam of the interior of the eye. Artificial enlargement of pupils acheived through use of mydriatic drops.
mydriatic drops placed into eyes to produce temporary paralysis, forcing pupils to remain dilated even in presence of bright light.
slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy diagnostic procedure in which a narrow beam of light is focused onto parts of eye to permit ophthalmologist to examine structures at front: cornea, iris, lens
fluorescein staining application of dye to surface of eye vie drops or strip applicator, causes corneal abrasions to be bright green. used to help detect foreign bodies or an infected or injured area of the eye
fluorescein angiography radiographic study of bv's in retina of eye following IV injection of a fluorescein dye as contrast medium.
angiograms of eye used to determine whether there is a proper circulation in the retinal vessels
PERRLA acronym meaning Pupils are Equal, Round, Responsive to Light and Accommodation. Diagnostic observation, & any abnormality could indicate head injury or damage to brain
tonometry measurement of intraocular pressure.
abnormally high intraocular pressure can be indication of glaucoma
orbitotomy surgical incision into orbit, procedure performed for biopsy, abscess drainage, or removal of a tumor or foreign object
tarsorrhaphy partial or complete suturing together of he upper & lower eyelids to protect the eye when the lids are paralyzed & unable to close normally
tars/o eyelid
corneal transplant aka keratoplasty; surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea w/ clear corneal tissue from donor
enucleation removal of the eyeball, leaving the eye muscles intact
e- out of
nucle nucleus
-ation action
ocular prosthesis aka artificial eye; may be fitted to wear over a malformed eye or to replace an eyeball that is either congenitally missing or has been surgically removed.
prosthesis artificial substitute for a diseased or missing body part
iridectomy surgical removal of a portion of the tissue of the iris, procedure is most frequently performed to treat closed-angle glaucoma
irid iris
-ectomy surgical removal
radial keratotomy surgical procedure to treat myopia. During surgery incisions made in cornea to cause it to flatten, allow sides of cornea to bulge outward & flatten central portion of the cornea. Brings focal point of eye closer to retina & improves distance vision
scleral buckle silicone band or sponge used to repair a detached retina. Detached layers are brought closer together by attaching this band onto the sclera, or outer wall, of eyeball, creating indention or buckle effect inside the eye
vitrectomy removal of the vitreous humor & its replacement w/ a clear solution. Sometimes performed to treat a retinal detachment or when diabetic retinopathy causes blood to leak & cloud vitreous humor
vitr vitreous humor
lensectomy general term used to describe surgical removal of a cataract-clouded lens
phacoemulsification use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter & remove the lens clouded by a cataract. This is performed through a very small opening, & the same opening is used to slide the intraocular lens into place
intraocular lens IOL; surgically implanted replacement for a natural lens that has been removed. 2 types (monofocal & multifocal), designed to eliminate need for corrective lenses
concave lenses curved inward, used for myopia or nearsightedness: corrects lenses that alter the angle of light rays before they reach cornea
convex lenses curved outward, used for hyperopia or farsightedness: corrects lenses that alter the angle of light rays before they reach cornea
bifocals lenses w/ 2 refractive powers, one above other, to allow for better distance vision when looking up & near vision when looking down
trifocals lenses w/ 3 refractive powers, one above the other, to allow for better distance vision when looking up & near vision when looking down.
strabismus sometimes treated w/ corrective lenses or an eye patch covering the stronger eye & thus strengthening the muscles in weaker eye
contact lenses refractive lenses that float directly on the tear film in front of eye. Rigid gas-permeable lenses cover the central part of the entire cornea
laser iridotomy uses a focused beam of light to create a hole in the iris of the eye, performed to treat closed-angle glaucoma by creating an opening that allows the aqueous humor to flow btw anterior & posterior chambers of anterior segment of eye
laser trabeculoplasty used to treat open-angle glaucoma by creating openings in trabecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly
LASIK acronym for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, used to treat vision conditions caused by shape of cornea. Flap opened in surface of cornea & laser changes shape of deep corneal layer.
in situ in its original place
photocoagulation use of laser to treat some forms of wet macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels, used to repair small retinal tears by intentionally forming scar tissue to seal the holes
retinopexy used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment
retin/o retina
-pexy surgical fixation
pneumatic retinopexy gas bubble is injected into the vitreous cavity to put pressure on the area of repair while it heals. Bubble gradually dissipitates
ears receptor of organs of hearing,& their functions are to receive sound impulses & transmit them to the brain. Inner ear helps maintain balance.
auditory pertaining to the sense of hearing
audit sense of hearing
-ory pertaining to
AD right ear (auris dexter)
AS left ear (auris sinister)
AU each ear (auris uterque), both ears (auris unitas)
acoustic pertaining to sound or hearing
acous hearing or sound
ear is divided into 3 separate regions: outer ear, middle ear, inner ear
pinna aka auricle or outer ear; external portion of the ear that captures sound waves & transmits them into the external auditory canal
external auditory canal transmits these sound waves to the tympanic membrane (eardrum) of the middle ear.
cerumen aka earwax; secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal; sticky yellow-brown substance that has protective functions b/c it traps small insects, dust, debris, & some bacteria to prevent them from entering the middle ear.
middle ear located btw the outer ear & inner ear, transmits sound across the space btw these 2 parts
tympanic membrane aka eardrum; located btw outer & middle ear, when sound waves reach eardrum, membrane transmits the sound by vibrating
mastoid process temporal bone containing hollow air space that surrounds the middle ear (process is projection on a structure such as bone)
auditory ossicles 3 small bones located w/in middle ear that transmit sound waves from eardrum to inner ear by vibration. Named for Latin terms that describe their shapes
malleus aka the hammer; ear bone in middle ear
incus aka the anvil; ear bone in middle ear
stapes aka the stirrup; ear bone in middle ear
eustachian tubes aka auditory tubes; narrow tubes that lead from middle ear to nasal cavity & throat. Equalizes air pressure w/in middle ear w/ that of outside atmosphere
inner ear contains sensory receptors for hearing & balance.
labyrinth structures of the inner ear that are maze-like
oval window located under base of stapes, is the membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear. Vibrations enter inner ear through this structure
cochlea snail-shaped structure of the inner ear & is where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses
located w/in cochlea cochlear duct, organ of Corti, semicircular canals, & acoustic nerves.
organ of Corti receives vibrations from the cochlear duct & relays them to auditory nerve fibers. Fibers transmit sound impulses to auditory center of brain's cerebral cortex, where heard & interpreted
3 semicircular canals connected to the cochlea by the vestibule, contain liquid endolymph & sensitive hair cells. Bending of the hair cells in response to movements of head sets up impulses in nerve fibers to help maintain equalibrium
equilibrium state of balance
acoustic nerves aka cranial nerve VIII, auditory nerves; transmit this info to the brain. Made up of 2 parts: cochlear nerves & vestibular nerves
cochlear nerves transmit sound for hearing
vestibular nerves sense balance & head position
air conduction process by which sound waves enter ear through pinna & then travel down external auditory canal until strike the tympanic membrane, located btw outer & inner ear
bone conduction occurs as eardrum vibrates & causes auditory ossicles of middle ear to vibrate. Vibration of bones transmits sound waves through middle ear to oval window of inner ear
sensorineural conduction occurs when sound vibrations reach each other in inner ear. Structures of inner ear receive sound waves & relay them to the auditory nerve for transmission to brain
audiologist specializes in the measurement of hearing function & in the rehabilitation of persons w/ hearing impairments
otolaryngologist ear, nose, throat physician
speech-language pathologist SLP; involved in numberous medical areas including audiology, help patients who have problems related to swallowing, speech, & communications disorders
impacted cerumen accumulation of earwax that forms a solid mass by adhering to the walls of the external auditory canal.
impacted lodged or wedged firmly in place
otalgia aka earache; pain in the ear
otitis any inflammation of the ear
otitis externa aka swimmer's ear; inflammation of the external auditory canal
otomycosis fungal infection of the external auditory canal
otopyorrhea flow of pus from ear
otorrhea any discharge from the ear, in rare cases cerebrospinal fluid
otorrhagia bleeding from the ear
barotrauma pressure-related ear condition, can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in mountains, or scuba diving when eustachian tube is blocked
bar/o pressure
cholesteotoma aka pearly tumor; destructive epidermal cyst in middle ear &/or mastoid process made up of epithelial cells & cholesterol. Congenital or serious complication of chronic otitis media
mastoiditis inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone. May develop when acute otitis media that cannot be controlled w/ antibiotics spreads to mastoid process
infectious myringitis contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on eardrum, associated w/ a middle ear infection.
infectious meningitis inflammation of brain & spinal cord
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
acute otitis media usually associated w/ upper respiratory infection & is most commonly seen in young children. Can lead to a ruptured eardrum due to buildup of pus or fluid in middle ear
serous otitis media fluid buildup in middle ear w/o symptoms of an infection. Can follow acute otitis media or can be caused by obstruction of eustachian tube
otosclerosis anklosis of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in conductive hearing loss, treated w/ stapedectomy
ankylosis fused together
labyrinthitis inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo & deafness
vertigo sense of whirling, dizziness, & loss of balance that is often combined w/ nausea & vomiting. Symptom of many disordes
recurrent vertigo sometimes associated w/ inner ear problems such as Meniere's disease
benign paroxysmal positional vertigo BPPV; common cause of vertigo that occurs when there is a shift in the location of small crystals in the semicircular canals
vestibular disorders disorders of the body's balance-controlling vestibular system in the inner ear, like BPPV, labyrinthitis, & Meniere's disesase
Meniere's disease rare chronic disorder in which amt of fluid in inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss (usually in 1 ear), & tinnitus.
tinnitus condition of a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears. Often associated w/ hearing loss & is more likely to occur when there has been prolonged exposure to loud noise.
acoustic neuroma brain tumor that develops adjacent to the cranial nerve running from the brain to the inner ear. One of the most common types of brain tumors & can cause hearing loss, vertigo, & tinnitus.
deafness complete or partial loss of the ability to hear. Can range from inability to hear sounds of a certain pitch or intensity, to complete loss of hearing
presbycusis gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as body ages
presby old age
-cusis hearing
conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid-filled inner ear. Causes include buildup of earwax, infection, fluid in middle ear, punctured eardrum, otosclerosis, & scarring. Can often be treated.
sensorineural hearing loss aka nerve deafness; develops when auditory nerve or hair cells in inner ear are damaged. Usually from age, noise exposure, or acoustic neuroma. Source of loss can be in inner ear, nerve from inner ear to brain, or in brain.
noise-induced hearing loss NIHL; type of nerve deafness caused by repeated exposure to extremely loud noises such as a gunshot or to moderately loud noises that continue for long periods of time.
when is noise-induced hearing loss recognized this gradual hearing loss usually isn't noticed until some hearing has been permanently destroyed
85 decibels (dB) any sound above this can cause some hearing loss if exposure is prolonged. Phones/ music players can produce sounds up to 105 dB, which is louder than mower or chainsaw
decibel commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of sound
140dB painful; firearms, rock concert, firecrackers
130dB extremely loud; jackhammer
120dB jet plane take-off
100dB lawnmower, motorcycle, chainsaw, power boat
80dB very loud; alarm clock
50dB moderate; loud voice
40dB faint; conversation
audiological evaluation aka speech audiometry; measurement of ability to hear & understand speech sounds based on their pitch & loudness.
audiogram resulting graph from an audiological evaluation, that represents the ability to hear a variety of sounds @ various loudness levels
audiometry use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity.
audiometer electronic device that produces acoustic stimuli of a set frequency & intensity
how is sound measured hertz & decibels
hertz Hz; measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch is.
otoscope instrument used to examine the external ear canal
pneumatic otoscope has the attachment of a bulb filled w/ air; during exam w/ otoscope the bulb is pressed to visualize whether or not tympanic membrane is immobile, indicating possible otitis media
monaural testing involves 1 ear
binaural testing involves both ears
aur hearing
tympanometry use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear. Tests middle ear fluid build-up or eustachian tube obstruction, or to evaluate a conductive hearing loss.
tympanogram resulting record of a typmpanometry.
acoustic reflectometry measures how much sound is reflected back from eardrum, a way to test how much fluid is in the middle ear to diagnose otitis media
Weber and Rinne tests use tuning fork to distinguish btw conductive & sensorineural hearing losses. Patient's perception of fork's vibrations helps evaluate their hearing ability by air conduction compared to that of bone conduction
otoplasty surgical repair, restoration, or alteration of pinna of the ear. Sometimes cosmetic ear pinning.
ear pinning bring protruding ears closer to head
ear tubes formerly aka typanostomy tubes; tiny ventilating tubes placed through eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids & to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infection
mastoidectomy surgical removal of mastoid cells. Used to treat mastoiditis that cannot be controlled w/ antibiotics or in preparation for placement of cochlear implant
myringotomy small surgical incision in eardrum to relieve pressure from excess puss or fluid or to create opening for placement of ear tubes
stapedectomy surgical removal of top potion of stapes bone & insertion of small prosthetic device known as a piston that conducts sound vibrations to inner ear.
tympanoplasty surgical correction of a damaged middle ear, either to cure chronic inflammation or to restore function.
labyrinthectomy surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth, performed to relieve uncontrolled vertigo but causes complete hearing loss in affected ear.
assistive listening device ALD; transmits, processes, or amplifies sound & can be used w/ or w/o a hearing aid. Can be helpful in eliminating distracting background noise.
cochlear implants electronic device that bypasses damaged portions of ear & directly stimulates auditory nerve.
how do cochlear implants work External speech processor captures sounds & converts into digital signals. Implanted electrodes receive signals & stimulate auditory nerve. Brain perceives as sound.
fenestration surgical procedure in which new opening is created in labyrinth to restore lost hearing
hearing aids electronic devices that are worn to correct a hearing loss.
type of hearing loss that can sometimes be corrected w/ hearing aid sensorineural hearing loss
analog hearing aid external electronic device that uses a microphone to detect & amplify sounds
digital hearing aid uses computer chip to convert the incoming sound into a code that can be filtered b4 being amplified. Best to compensate for hearing loss.
Hearing aids are worn BTE, ITE, ITC, or CIC BTE=behind the ear, ITE=in the ear, ITC=in the canal, or CIC= completely in the canal
AC air conduction
ALD assisted listening device
AS astigmatism
CAT cataract
CI conjunctivitis
dB decibel
EM, em emmetropia
FA, FAG fluorescein angiography
G, glc glaucoma
MD macular degeneration
RK radial keratotomy
RD retinal detachment
SLE slit-lamp examination
VA visual acuity
VF visual field
Created by: kld0519
Popular Medical sets




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