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Med Term CH10
Med Term zCH10 The Nervous System
|shaken together, violently agitated
|feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception
|the process of producing a picture or record
|spinal cord, bone marrow
|nerve, nerve tissue
|nerve, nerve tissue
|root or nerve root
|having an affinity for
|brain: combining forms
|brain: primary functions
|coordinates all body activities by receiving & transmitting messages throughout the body
|spinal cord: combining forms
|spinal cord: primary functions
|transmits nerve impulses btw the brain, arms & legs, & lower part of body
|nerves: combining forms
|nerves: primary functions
|receive & transmit messages to & from all parts of the body
|sensory organs & receptors: primary functions
|receive external stimulation & transmit these stimuli to the sensory neurons
|sensory organs & receptors: parts & function
|eyes (sight), ears (hearing), nose (smell), skin (touch), tongue (taste)
|major structures of the nervous system
|nerves, brain, spinal cord, & sensory organs
|2 primary parts of nervous system
|central & peripheral
|Central Nervous System
|CNS, includes brain & spinal cord. Receives & processes info & regulates all bodily activity
|Peripheral Nervous System parts
|PNS, includes 12 pr of cranial nerves extending from brain & the 31 pr of peripheral spinal nerves extending outward from spinal cord.
|Peripheral Nervous System function
|transmit nerve signal to & from the central nervous system
|one or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain & spinal cord w/ other parts of the body
|bundle or group of nerve fibers located w/in the brain or spinal cord
|ascending nerve tracts
|carry nerve impulses toward the brain
|descending nerve tracts
|carry nerve impulses away from the brain
|nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
|supply of nerves to a specific body part
|network of intersecting spinal nerves or network of intersecting blood or lymphatic vessels
|sites in the sensory organs (eyes, ears, skin, nose, taste buds) that receive external stimulation. Receptors send stimulus through sensory neurons to brain for interpretation
|anything that excites (activates) a nerve & causes an impulse.
|wave of excitation transmitted through nerve fibers & neurons
|an automatic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside of the body
|examples of reflexes
|changes in heart rate, breathing rate, & blood pressure; coughing/ sneezing; responses to painful stimuli; deep tendon reflexes
|basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate w/ each other
|how do brain waves happen
|the body has billions of neurons carrying nerve impulses throughout body via electrochemical process. This process creates patterns of neuron electrical activity in brain
|how are different types of brain waves produced
|periods of intense activity, rest, & sleep
|3 types of neurons
|"ACE"; Afferent, connecting, efferent
|"toward"; aka sensory neurons; emerge from sensory organs & skin to carry impulses from sensory organs toward brain/ spinal cord
|aka associative neurons; link afferent & efferent neurons
|"away from"; aka motor neurons; carry impulses away from brain/ spinal cord & toward muscles & glands
|afferent neurons, connecting neurons, efferent neurons
|sensory neurons (afferent), associative neurons (connecting), motor neurons (efferent)
|parts of a neuron
|cell body, several dendrites, a single axon, & terminal end fibers
|root-like processes that receive impulses & conduct them to the cell body
|structure that extends out from the cell body
|process that conducts impulses away from the nerve cell. Can be more than 3' long. Many protected by myelin sheath
|white fatty tissue covering; protective covering made up of glial cells. Forms white brain matter & covers part of spinal cord & axon of most peripheral nerves
|terminal end fibers
|branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nerve impulse from the axon to the synapse
|space btw 2 neurons or btw a neuron & a receptor organ. Single neuron can have a few or several hundred.
|chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor. 200-300, ea w/ specialized function
|examples of neurotransmitters
|acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, norepinephrine, serotonin
|released @ some synapses in the spinal cord & at neuromuscular junctions; it influences muscle action
|released w/in brain. Excess associated w/ schizophrenia, mood & thought disorders & in abnormal movement disorders (Parkinsons)
|naturally occurring substances that are produced by the brain to help relieve pain
|affects alertness & arousal, increasing bp & heart rate, releasing stores of glucose in response to stress. fight-or-flight
|released in the brain, has roles in sleep, hunger, & pleasure recognition. Sometimes linked to mood disorders
|provide support & protection for neurons
|4 main functions of glial cells
|1)surround neurons & hold them in 1 place,2) supply nutrients & oxygen to neurons,3) insulate 1 neuron from another, 4)destroy & remove dead neurons
|portion of nerves that are mylinated; color of covering makes the fibers white
|having a myelin sheath
|portions of nerve fibers that are unmyelinated; lack of sheath reveals brownish-gray color of cortex of the cerebrum & cerebellum, & core of spinal cord
|lacking a myelin sheath
|what protects the central nervous system externally
|bones of cranium & vertebrae of the spinal column.
|what protects the central nervous system internally
|meninges & cerebrospinal fluid
|system of membranes that enclose the brain & spinal cord. 3 layers of connective tissue.
|3 layers of meninges
|dura mater, arachnoid membrane, & pia mater
|thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
|the inner surface of the craniums is lined with ______
|inner surface of the vertebral column, located btw walls of vertebral column & dura mater of the meninges
|what does the epidural space contain
|fat & supportive connective tissues to cushion the dura mater
|in both the skull & vertebral column, this is located btw the dura mater & the arachnoid membrane
|resembles a spider web; second layer of the meninges & is located btw the dura mater & pia mater
|having to do w/ spiders
|how is arachnoid membrane attached & why
|loosely attached o the other meninges to allow space for fluid to flow btw the layers
|located below the arachnoid membrane & above pia mater, contains cerebrospinal fluid
|3rd layer of meninges, located nearest to the brain & spinal cord.
|pia mater consists of
|delicate connective tissue that contains rich supply of blood vessels
|tender or delicate
|aka spinal fluid; produced by special capillaries w/in 4 ventricles located in middle region of cerebrum
|cerebrospinal fluid color, consistency, location
|clear, colorless, watery fluid that flows throughout the brain & around spinal cord.
|functions of cerebrospinal fluid
|cool/ cushion brain & spinal column from shock or injury, nourish brain & cord by transporting nutrients & chemical messengers
|largest & upper-most portion of the brain. Responsible for all thought, judgement, memory, emotion, controlling/ integrating motor & sensory functions
|cerebrum vs cerebellum
|cerebellum is below the cerebrum
|how many lobes in cerebrum
|functions of cerebrum
|controls highest level of thought: judgement, memory, association, critical thinking. Processes sensations & controls all voluntary muscle activity
|functions of thalmus
|relays sensory stimuli from spinal cord & midbrain to cerebral cortex. Suppresses some stimuli & magnifies others
|functions of the hypothalmus
|controls vital body functions
|located in the lower back of the cranium below the cerebrum
|functions of the cerebellum
|coordinates muscular activity & balance for smooth & steady movements
|in base of brain & forms connection btw brain & spinal cord. Consists of midbrain, pons, & medulla oblongata
|functions of brainstem
|controls functions necessary for survival (breathing, digestion, heart rate, bp) & for arousal (being awake/ alert)
|pertaining to the cerebrum or to the brain
|made up of gray matter; outer layer of the cerebrum & made up of elevated folds & deep fissures
|elevated folds of gray matter in cerebral cortex
|fissures of the cerebral cortex
|normally occurring deep groove
|how cerebrum is divided
|where 2 cerebral hemispheres are connected & lower midpoint
|left cerebral hemisphere
|controls majority of functions on the RT side of body. Injury to LT hemisphere produces sensory/ motor deficits on RT of body
|right cerebral hemisphere
|controls most of the functions on LT side of body. Injury to RT hemisphere produces sensory/ motor deficits on LT of body
|each cerebral hemisphere is subdivided to create these pairs & each named for bone of cranium that covers it
|controls skilled motor functions, memory, & behavior
|receives & interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in tongue, skin, & muscles
|controls senses of hearing & smell, & ability to create, store, & access new information
|located below the cerebrum, produces sensations by relaying impulses to & from cerebrum & the sense of organs of the body
|located below the thalamus
|Regulates: autonomic nervous system, emotional responses, body temp, hunger, thirst, sleep/wake cycle, pituitary & endocrine
|2nd-largest part of brain. Located @ back of head below posterior portion of cerebrum
|receives incoming messages regarding movement w/ joints, muscle tone, & positions of body. Messages relayed to different parts of brain that control motions of skeletal muscles.
|general functions of cerebellum
|produce smooth & coordinated movements, to maintain equilibrium, & to sustain normal posture
|midbrain and pons
|Part of brainstem; provide conduction pathways to & from higher & lower centers of the brain. Control reflexes for movements of the eyes & head in response to visual & auditory stimuli
|located @ lowest part of brainstem, is connected to spinal cord. Controls basic survival functions:breathing, heart rate, bp & reflexes for coughing, vomiting, sneezing, swallowing
|long, fragile, tube-like structure that begins @ end of brainstem & continues down almost to bottom of spinal column.
|what nerves are contained in spinal column
|all nerves that affect the limbs & lower part of the body, & serves as pathway for impulses traveling to & from brain
|what surrounds spinal column inside protected area?
|cerebrospinal fluid and meninges
|3 types of specialized peripheral nerves that transmit signals to & from CNS
|autonomic, sensory, & somatic nerve fibers
|autonomic nerve fibers
|carry instructions to the organs & glands from the autonomic nervous system
|sensory nerve fibers
|receive external stimuli, such as how something feels, & transmit this info to the brain where it is interpreted
|somatic nerve fibers
|aka motor nerve fibers, convey info that controls the body's voluntary muscular movements
|12 pairs of cranial nerves
|originate from under-surface of brain. 2 nerves of a pair are identical in function/ structure, & ea pr serves 1/2 of body.
|how are cranial nerves identified
|Roman numerals & are named for the area or function they serve
|31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves are grouped together & named based on region of body they innervate. Where?
|Within each region nerves referred to by #. cervical= C1-C8, thoracic= T1-T12, lumbar= L1-L5, & sacral= S1-S5.
|what is the lumbar plexis
|made up of 1st 4 lumbar nerves L1-L4 & serves the lower back.
|2 divisions of autonomic nervous system
|sympathetic nerves & parasympathetic nerves
|process of maintaining the constant internal environment of the body
|prepare body for emergencies & stress by increasing the respiratory rate, heart rate, & blood flow to muscles.
|sympathetic nerves are aroused as part of this
|fight-or-flight response, which is the body's natural reaction to real or imaginary danger
|return the body to normal after a response to stress. Also maintain normal body function during ordinary circumstances
|physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents b4 & during surgery
|medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia but is not a physician, for ex, nurse anesthetist
|physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the nervous system
|physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
|physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, & mental illness
|has doctoral degree (PhD or PsyD) but is not medical Dr. Specialist evaluates & treats emotional problems & mental illness
|trained therapist, usually w/ master's degree (MSW)
|aka headache; pain in the head
|my be preceded by warning aura, throbbing pain on one side of head. Primarily affect women & sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, & light/ sound sensitivity
|a visual disturbance perceived by patient preceding a migraine headache or epileptic seizure
|intensely painful headaches that affect 1 side of head & may be assoc w/ tearing of the eyes & nasal congestion. Mostly men
|aka craniocele; congenital herniation of brain tissue through gap in skull
|present at birth
|protrusion of a structure from its normal position
|congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
|condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain. Can occur @ birth or later in life.
|common, slow-growing, & usually benign tumor of the meninges
|aka infection meningitis; inflammation of the meninges of the brain & spinal cord. Can be caused by bacterial or viral infection elsewhere in body.
|symptoms of meningitis
|intense headache & flu-like symptoms.
|less-common form of meningitis
|bacterial, which is sometimes fatal
|describes the mental activities associated w/ thinking, learning, & memory
|mild cognitive impairment
|memory disorder, usually associated w/ recently acquired info, which may be predictor of Alzheimer's disease
|slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, & judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
|dementia of the aged
|refers to a group of symptoms leading to a state of confusion that can happen towards the end of the day in patients w/ dementia
|form of dementia caused by a stroke or other restriction of the flow of blood to the brain.
|% of dementia cases from vascular demetia
|10-20%, primary cause though is Alzherimer's disease
|inflammation of the brain, can be caused by viral infection such as rabies
|RS, serious & potentially deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting & confusion. Sometimes follows viral illness in which child was treated w/ aspirin
|aka lockjaw; an acute & potentially fatal infection of CNS caused by toxin produced by tentanus bacteria. Can be prevented through immunization.
|TS, complex neurological disorder characterized by involuntary tics, grunts, & compulsive utterances that sometimes includes obscenities
|aka degenerative nerve disease; is an umbrella term for disorders in which there is a progressive loss of the structure or functions of the neurons
|AD; a group of disorders involving parts of the brain that control thought, memory, & language.
|leading form of dementia, marked by progressive deterioration that affects both memory & reasoning capabilities of an individual
|a genetic disorder that is classified as a neurodegenerative disease
|PD; chronic, degenerative CNS disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, & slow or shuffling gait.
|manner of walking
|what causes the slow shuffling or gait associated w/ Parkinsons?
|gradual progressive loss of control over movements due to inadequate levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
|Lewy body dementia
|2nd most common type of dementia, occurs when abnormal proteins interfere w/cell function in brain. Named after Frederick
|amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
|aka Lou Gehrig's disease; rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles. Patients become progressively weaker until completely paralyzed & die
|memory disturbance characterized by total or partial inability to recall past experiences. Can be caused by brain injury, illness, or psychological disturbance
|violent shaking up or jarring of the brain, may result in temporary loss of awareness & function
|condition or state of
|bruising of the brain tissue as a result of a head injury that causes brain to bounce against rigid bone of skull
|collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain, named for their location, sometimes caused by minor/major head injury
|located above dura mater
|located below dura mater
|traumatic brain injury
|blow to the head or a penetrating head injury that damages the brain. Not all blows to head result in brain damage.
|describes injury occurring w/in skull near point of impact, such as hitting the windshield in auto accident.
|aka counterblow; injury that occurs beneath the skull opposite the area of impact
|shaken baby syndrome
|results of a child being violently shaken by someone. Action can cause brain injury, blindness, fractures, seizures, paralysis, death
|levels of consciousness
|LOC; describe measurement of response to arousal & stimulus
|altered levels of consciousness
|ALOC; refer to a decrease in consciousness due to injury, disease, or substances such as medication, drugs, or alcohol
|state of being awake, alert, aware, and responding appropriately
|state of being unaware & unable to respond to any stimuli, including pain
|lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, & apathy.
|indifference & a reduced level of activity
|a person who is at this level of consciousness
|unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly despite vigorous, repeated attempts
|aka fainting; brief loss of consciousness caused by decreased flow of blood to brain
|profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, & lack of speech
|refers to person who is in a coma
|persistent vegetative state
|type of coma in which patient exhibits altering sleep & wake cycles; but due to severe damage to certain areas of brain, person is unconscious even when appearing to be awake.
|person considered this when brain has ceased functioning. Vital functions like breathing can sometimes be maintained artificially to allow for organ donation.
|acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking & memory, agitation, & hallucinations
|abnormal growth located inside skull
|invasive malignant brain tumor
|destroys brain tissue. When originates in brain, considered primary site - if metastasizes (spreads) other is secondary site
|benign brain tumor
|does not invade brain tissue, but can damage brain tissue from intracranial pressure since surrounded by rigid bone
|amt of pressure inside skull. Elevated intracranial pressure can be due to tumor, injury, or improper drainage of cerebrospinal fluid
|intracranial pressure restricts
|the flow of blood to the brain, depriving it of oxygen
|aka CVA, stroke; damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted b/c a blood vessel is blocked or ruptured
|3rd leading cause of death & primary cause of long-term disability
|Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale
|3 question scale used to recognize CVA using mnemonic FAST: Facial droop, Arm drift, Speech abnormality, Time
|FAST, Facial droop
|one side of face droops or does not move equally when person smiles
|FAST, Arm drift
|weakness on one side of the body, demonstrated by one arm drifting down when both arms are extended.
|FAST, Speech abnormality
|slurred speech, using the wrong words, or unable to speak
|if any of the signs are present, immediate conveyance to ER is essential for critical treatments such as thrombolytics
|Location of stroke disruption: right
|damage to RT side of brain causes LT side symptoms
|Location of stroke disruption: left
|damage to LT side of brain causes RT side symptoms
|most common in older ppl, occurs when flow of blood to brain is blocked by narrowing/ blockage of carotid artery.
|pertaining to disruption of blood supply
|type of ischemic stroke which occurs when blood clot forms in carotid artery & blocks it.
|occurs when blood clot or other debris forms in a blood vessel somewhere other than brain & travels through bloodstream to lodge in narrower brain arteries
|transient ischemic stroke
|aka TIA, or mini-stroke; temporary interruption in blood supply to brain. Numbness, blurred vision, dizziness, loss of balance
|Passes in less than an hour, but incident is often warning sign @ risk for one more severe
|transient ischemic stroke
|often caused by brain damage associated w/ stroke; loss of ability to speak, write, &/or comprehend the written or spoken word
|aka bleed; occurs when a blood vessel in brain leaks or when aneurysm w/in brain ruptures
|localized, weak, balloon-like enlargement of an artery wall. Less common than ischemic strokes & often fatal.
|1 of the causes of hemorrhagic strokes. Abnormal connection btw arteries & veins in brain, usually congenital & can rupture suddenly @ any age
|prolonged or abnormal ability to sleep. Usually a symptom of another problem such as depression, pain, or excessive caffeine
|sleep disorder consisting of sudden & uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day
|sufficient lack of restorative sleep over a cumulative period so as to cause physical or psychiatric symptoms & affect routine performance or task.
|aka sleepwalking or noctambulism; condition of walking or performing some other activity w/o awakening
|localized area of dead tissue caused by lack of blood
|inflammation of spinal cord or inflammation of bone marrow
|tumor of the spinal cord or abnormal proliferation of bone marrow
|aka polio; highly contagious viral infection of brainstem & spinal cord that sometimes leads to paralysis. No known cure but prevented through vaccinations
|recurrence later in life of some polio symptoms that had childhood poliomyelitis & recovered
|aka pinched nerve; inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain & numbness radiating down the affected limb
|root or nerve root
|nerve pain caused by pressure on spinal nerve roots in neck region
|nerve pain in lower back caused by muscle spasms or nerve root irritation from compression of vertebral disks (like herniated)
|MS; progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath
|MS scars & disrupts:
|scars the brain, spinal cord, & optic nerves & disrupts the transmission of nerve impulses. Pain & physical/ cognitive probs
|loss of patches of protective myelin sheath
|periods of this with MS; episodes of worsening symptoms also referred to as flares. Between episodes = remission
|period of time which symptoms ease, but disease has not been cured
|temporary paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve that causes paralysis of the face, only on affected side. Can include inability to close the eye, pain, tearing, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound in affected ear, & impairment of taste
|aka infection polyneuritis; an inflammation of the myelin sheath or peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that can lead to temporary paralysis. Rare.
|inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain & sometimes loss of function
|inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, & tingling along course of affected nerve through thigh, leg, foot
|characterized by severe, lightening-like pain due to inflammation of the 5th cranial nerve. Sudden, intense, brief attacks of sharp pain affect cheek, lips, & gums on 1 side.
|condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, & other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects cerebrum.
|condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted
|paralysis of a body part that is often accompanied by loss of feeling & uncontrolled body movements, such as shaking
|aka seizure disorder; chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures or varying severity. Usually controlled w/ meds
|sudden surge of electrical activity in brain that affects how person feels or acts for short period. Some hardly noticed, others cause brief loss of consciousness.
|aka grand mal seizure; involves entire body. Tonic phase: body becomes rigid; clonic phase: uncontrolled jerking
|aka petit mal seizure; brief disturbance in brain function in which there is a loss of awareness often described as a staring episode
|persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
|condition of abnormal & excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
|sensation or feeling
|a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet but can also occur in other parts of body; could be 1st symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or drug side effect
|disorder of peripheral nerves that carry info to & from brain & spinal cord. Produces pain, loss of sensation, & inability to control muscles, particularly in arms/ legs
|any disease or damage to a nerve
|damage to a singular peripheral nerve, as in carpal tunnel syndrome
|when multiple peripheral nerves are damaged. Diabetes is common cause, as is trauma, vitamin def, alcoholism
|restless legs syndrome
|RLS; neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable feelings in legs, produced by strong urge to move them.
|magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography
|MRI & CT; important neuroimaging tools b/c facilitate examination of soft tissue structures of brain/ spinal cord
|fMRI, detects changes in blood flow in brain when patient is asked to perform a specific task. Gives clear picture of brain tissue relevant to task
|ultrasound study of carotid artery, performed to detect plaque buildup in the artery to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke
|use of ultrasound imaging to create a detailed visual image of brain for diagnostic purposes
|process of recording electrical activity of the brain through use of electrodes attached to scalp.
|EEG, resulting record of an electroencephalography - can also be displayed on monitor as brain waves
|EMG, utilized electrodes taped to skin to measure transfer of electrical signals in peripheral nerves to muscles
|aka LP, spinal tap; process of obtaining a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting needle into subarachnoid space of lumbar region to withdraw fluid. Changes in composition = indication of injury, infection, disease.
|depresses CNS & usually produces sleep
|administered to prevent seizures such as those associated w/ epilepsy
|class of drugs whose major action is calming or depressed effects on CNS
|barbiturate used as sedative & hypnotic
|barbiturate used as a sedative & as an anticonvulsant
|depresses CNS to produce calm & diminished responsiveness w/o producing sleep
|effect produced by a sedative.
|absence of normal sensation, especially to pain, that is induced by the administration of an anesthetic agent
|medication used to induce anesthesia; may be topical, local, regional, or general.
|regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into epidural space of lumbar or sacral region of spine.
|involves total loss of body sensation & consciousness induced by anesthetic agents administered primarily by inhalation or IV
|causes loss of sensation in a limited area by injecting an anesthetic solution near that area.
|temp interruption of nerve conduction, is produced by injecting an anesthetic solution near the nerves to be blocked
|regional anesthesia produced by injecting meds into subarachnoid space. As w/ epidural, patient remains conscious
|numbs only tissue surface & is applied to waist or lower chest
|deep brain stimulation
|DBS, neurosurgical procedure used in treatment of dystonia, tremors, & Parkinson's. Device to stimulate brain w/ mild electrical signals is implanted in brain & is connected to stimulator implanted near collar bone.
|impairment of voluntary muscle movement
|gamma knife surgery
|type of radiation treatment for brain tumors performed w/o knife or an incision. Surgeon uses gamma radiation to destroy diseased tissue while preserving healthy tissue around tumor
|characterized by high energy & a short wavelength, also used in nuclear medicine
|aka ECT, electroshock therapy; procedure in which small amt of electric current passed through brain, deliberately triggering a brief seizure in order to reverse symptoms of certain illnesses
|surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure disorders that cannot be controlled w/ meds
|surgical incision into thalamus; destroys brain cells, is primarily performed to quite tremors of Parkinson's disease
|transcranial magnetic stimulation
|TMS uses brief, powerful electromagnetic pulses to alter electrical pathways in the brain
|surgical repair of a nerve or nerves
|surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
|surgical division or dissection (cutting) of a nerve
|mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation. W/o treatment = chronic
|generalized anxiety disorder
|GAD; characterized by chronic, excessive worrying. Physical symptoms assoc w/ this condition can include muscle tension, sleep disturbance, irritability, trouble concentrating, & restlessness.
|unexpected, sudden experience of fear in the absence of danger, accompanied by physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chest tightness, dizziness, sweating, nausea, feelings of unreality, choking sensations, or combination.
|panic attack is an unneeded....
|characterized by fear of panic attacks, can cause agoraphobia or other phobias
|post-traumatic stress disorder
|PTSD; may develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to individual or someone else, during which person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror.
|symptoms of PTSD
|emotional numbing, hyper-arousal, anxiety, sleep disorders, & persistent reliving of the event
|persistent, irrational fear of a specific thing or situation, strong enough to cause significant distress, to interfere w/ functioning, & lead to avoidance of thing/ situation
|name of the feared thing or situation
|an excessive fear of heights
|excessive fear of environments where person fears a panic atack might occur. Might not leave home.
|an abnormal fear of being in small or enclosed spaces
|social anxiety disorder
|aka social phobia; excessive fear of social situations where person fears negative evaluation by others & embarassing self in front of others
|OCD; recurrent obsessions (repetitive, intrusive, distressing thoughts or impulses) &/or compulsions (repeatedly feeling compelled to do things like wash/ pray). Must do things or increases anxiety
|characterized by over accumulation of belongings in way that interferes w/ daily living. Can create unsafe & unsanitary living conditions
|attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
|ADHD; short attention span & impulsive behavior that is inappropriate for child's developmental age.
|restlessness or a continuing excess of movement
|attention deficit disorder
|ADD; used if hyperactivity not present
|aka developmental reading disorder; substandard reading achievement due to inability of brain to process symbols correctly
|disorders found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills such as processing language
|aka intellectual development disorder; diagnosis of significant below-avg intellectual & adaptive functioning present from birth or early infancy
|autistic spectrum disorder
|ASD; condition w/ different levels of symptom severity in which a young child has difficulty developing normal social relationships & communication, narrowly focused, intense interests
|significant developmental delays, including speech/ language.
|usually have normal or above-avg intelligence but are impaired in social interactions & nonverbal communication
|occur when normal thought is separated from consciousness
|dissociative identity disorder
|formerly multiple personality disorder; mental illness w/ presence of 2 or more distinct personalities, ea w/ own characteristics
|impulse control disorders
|group of psychiatric disorders characterized by failure to resist and impulse despite potential negative consequences
|disorder where repeatedly steal objects neither for personal use nor for monetary value
|disorder where repeatedly & deliberately set fires
|oppositional defiant disorder
|a child or adolescent's persistent angry, uncooperative, & disruptive behavior directed toward authority figures, disrupts daily activities
|cycles of severe mood changes shifting btw highs and lows that affect person's attitude, energy, & ability to function
|bipolar disorder highs
|manic behavior, which could include euphoria (intense happiness/ excitement)
|bipolar disorder lows
|includes an abnormally elevated mood of euphoria, including inappropriate elation, increased irritability, severe insomnia, poor judgment, & inappropriate social behavior
|common mood disorder; lethargy & sadness, as well as loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities. May lead to feeling of worthlessness & thoughts of death, self-harm, or suicide
|intentional taking of one's own life
|persistent depressive disorder
|aka dysthymia; low-grade, chronic depression w/ symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but persistent on a majority of days for 2 or more yrs
|disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
|DMDD; newer diagnosis for children who have frequent, severe temper outbursts & are chronically unstable.
|seasonal affective disorder
|SAD; seasonal bout of depression assoc w/ decrease hours of daylight during winter months
|false perception of body appearance, intense fear of gaining weight & inability to maintain healthy body weight. Voluntary starvation/ excessive exercising cause emanciatedness
|eating disorder; frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors like self-induced vomiting, excessive exercising, or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or meds
|binge eating disorder
|BED; frequent episodes of eating large qty's of food, accompanied by sense of loss of control & feelings of guilt or shame afterwards
|chronic pattern of inner experience & behavior that causes serious problems w/ relationships & work. Pattern pervasive & inflexible & leads to distress or impairment
|antisocial personality disorder
|pattern of disregard for & violation of the rights of others.
|borderline personality disorder
|impulsive actions, often w/ potential for self-harm, as well as mood instability & chaotic relationships.
|narcissistic personality disorder
|pattern of extreme preoccupation w/ the self & complete lack of empathy for others.
|ability to understand another person's mental & emotional state w/o becoming personally involved
|loss of contact w/ reality & deterioration of normal social functioning
|marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, & tendency to remain in a fixed posture
|false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. Belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of one's culture/ faith
|sensory perception (sight, touch, sound, smell, taste) experienced in absence of external stimulation
|psychotic disorder, usually withdrawn from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, & hallucinations & accompanied in varying degrees by other emotional, behavioral, or intellectual disturbances.
|somatic symptom disorder
|physical complaints or concerns about one's body that are out of proportion to any physical findings or disease
|an individual acts as if he/she has a physical or mental illness when he/she is not really sick. Visible symptoms usually self-inflicted
|artificial, self-induced, or not naturally occurring
|aka factitious disorder
|factitious disorder by proxy
|form of child abuse. While seeming concerned w/ child's well-being, mentally ill parent will falsify an illness in child by making up or inducing symptoms
|serious temp or ongoing changes in function, such as paralysis or blindness, triggered by psychological factors rather than physical
|intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by incentives such as avoiding work.
|addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, meds, or illegal drugs. Abuse leads to significant impairment in functioning, danger to one's self or others, & recurrent legal/ interpersonal problems
|chronic alcohol dependence w/ specific signs & symptoms upon withdrawal
|psychological or physical syndrome (or both) caused by abrupt cessation of use of alcohol or drugs in an addicted individual
|disorder involving sudden & severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping use of alcohol
|excessive use of illegal or recreational drugs, or misuse of prescription drugs
|one normally used for personal pleasure or satisfaction rather than medical purposes
|potentially fatal, accidental or intentional use of an illegal drug or prescription meds in an amt higher than what is safe or normal.
|person's gender at birth does not match gender with which they currently identify, potentially causing significant amts of stress
|a person whose gender identity does not match their gender at birth
|acts primarily on the CNS, where produces temp changes affecting mind, emotions, & behavior. Used to control pain & treat narcolepsy & attention disorders
|administered to prevent or relieve depression, some to treat OCD & generalized anxiety disorders, or help relieve chronic pain
|aka neuroleptic; to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking & mood that are assoc w/ neurological & psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, mania, delusional disorders
|aka antianxiety or tranquilizer; temporarily relieves anxiety & to reduce tension
|ex lithium; used to tread mood instability & bipolar disorders
|works by increasing activity in certain areas of brain to increase concentration & wakefulness. Overuse can cause sleeplessness & heart palpitations
|based on idea that mental disorders have underlying causes stemming from childhood & can only be overcome by gaining insight into one's feeling & patterns of behavior
|focuses on changing behavior by identifying problem behaviors, replacing them w/ appropriate behaviors &using rewards or other consequences to make changes
|cognitive behavioral therapy
|CBT; focuses on changing thoughts that are affecting person's emotions & actions. These are ID'd & then challenged through logic, gathering evidence, testing in action, or combo
|dialectical behavior therapy
|DBT, modified version of CBT, used to treat ppl w/ suicidal thoughts, self-harm, or borderline personality disorder
|use of hypnosis to produce an altered state of focused attn in which patient may be more willing to believe & act on suggestions
|amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
|attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
|levels of consciousness or loss of consciousness
|post-traumatic stress disorder
|transient ischemic attack