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Med Term CH10

Med Term zCH10 The Nervous System

TermDefinition
caus/o burning, burn
cerebr/o cerebrum, brain
concuss/o shaken together, violently agitated
contus/o bruise
encephal/o brain
-esthesia sensation, feeling
esthet/o feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception
-graphy the process of producing a picture or record
mening/o membranes, meninges
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
neur/i nerve, nerve tissue
neur/o nerve, nerve tissue
phobia abnormal fear
psych/o mind
radicul/o root or nerve root
-tropic having an affinity for
brain: combining forms cerebr/o, encephal/o
brain: primary functions coordinates all body activities by receiving & transmitting messages throughout the body
spinal cord: combining forms myel/o
spinal cord: primary functions transmits nerve impulses btw the brain, arms & legs, & lower part of body
nerves: combining forms neur/i, neur/o
nerves: primary functions receive & transmit messages to & from all parts of the body
sensory organs & receptors: primary functions receive external stimulation & transmit these stimuli to the sensory neurons
sensory organs & receptors: parts & function eyes (sight), ears (hearing), nose (smell), skin (touch), tongue (taste)
major structures of the nervous system nerves, brain, spinal cord, & sensory organs
2 primary parts of nervous system central & peripheral
Central Nervous System CNS, includes brain & spinal cord. Receives & processes info & regulates all bodily activity
Peripheral Nervous System parts PNS, includes 12 pr of cranial nerves extending from brain & the 31 pr of peripheral spinal nerves extending outward from spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System function transmit nerve signal to & from the central nervous system
nerve one or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain & spinal cord w/ other parts of the body
tract bundle or group of nerve fibers located w/in the brain or spinal cord
ascending nerve tracts carry nerve impulses toward the brain
descending nerve tracts carry nerve impulses away from the brain
ganglion nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
innervation supply of nerves to a specific body part
plexus network of intersecting spinal nerves or network of intersecting blood or lymphatic vessels
receptors sites in the sensory organs (eyes, ears, skin, nose, taste buds) that receive external stimulation. Receptors send stimulus through sensory neurons to brain for interpretation
stimulus anything that excites (activates) a nerve & causes an impulse.
impulse wave of excitation transmitted through nerve fibers & neurons
reflex an automatic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside of the body
examples of reflexes changes in heart rate, breathing rate, & blood pressure; coughing/ sneezing; responses to painful stimuli; deep tendon reflexes
neurons basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate w/ each other
how do brain waves happen the body has billions of neurons carrying nerve impulses throughout body via electrochemical process. This process creates patterns of neuron electrical activity in brain
how are different types of brain waves produced periods of intense activity, rest, & sleep
3 types of neurons "ACE"; Afferent, connecting, efferent
afferent neurons "toward"; aka sensory neurons; emerge from sensory organs & skin to carry impulses from sensory organs toward brain/ spinal cord
connecting neurons aka associative neurons; link afferent & efferent neurons
efferent neurons "away from"; aka motor neurons; carry impulses away from brain/ spinal cord & toward muscles & glands
ACE afferent neurons, connecting neurons, efferent neurons
SAM sensory neurons (afferent), associative neurons (connecting), motor neurons (efferent)
parts of a neuron cell body, several dendrites, a single axon, & terminal end fibers
dendrites root-like processes that receive impulses & conduct them to the cell body
process structure that extends out from the cell body
axon process that conducts impulses away from the nerve cell. Can be more than 3' long. Many protected by myelin sheath
myelin sheath white fatty tissue covering; protective covering made up of glial cells. Forms white brain matter & covers part of spinal cord & axon of most peripheral nerves
terminal end fibers branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nerve impulse from the axon to the synapse
synapse space btw 2 neurons or btw a neuron & a receptor organ. Single neuron can have a few or several hundred.
neurotransmitters chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor. 200-300, ea w/ specialized function
examples of neurotransmitters acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, norepinephrine, serotonin
acetylcholine released @ some synapses in the spinal cord & at neuromuscular junctions; it influences muscle action
dopamine released w/in brain. Excess associated w/ schizophrenia, mood & thought disorders & in abnormal movement disorders (Parkinsons)
endorphins naturally occurring substances that are produced by the brain to help relieve pain
norepinephrine affects alertness & arousal, increasing bp & heart rate, releasing stores of glucose in response to stress. fight-or-flight
serotonin released in the brain, has roles in sleep, hunger, & pleasure recognition. Sometimes linked to mood disorders
glial cells provide support & protection for neurons
4 main functions of glial cells 1)surround neurons & hold them in 1 place,2) supply nutrients & oxygen to neurons,3) insulate 1 neuron from another, 4)destroy & remove dead neurons
white matter portion of nerves that are mylinated; color of covering makes the fibers white
myelinated having a myelin sheath
gray matter portions of nerve fibers that are unmyelinated; lack of sheath reveals brownish-gray color of cortex of the cerebrum & cerebellum, & core of spinal cord
unmyelinated lacking a myelin sheath
what protects the central nervous system externally bones of cranium & vertebrae of the spinal column.
what protects the central nervous system internally meninges & cerebrospinal fluid
meninges system of membranes that enclose the brain & spinal cord. 3 layers of connective tissue.
3 layers of meninges dura mater, arachnoid membrane, & pia mater
dura mater thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
dura hard
mater mother
the inner surface of the craniums is lined with ______ dura mater
epidural space inner surface of the vertebral column, located btw walls of vertebral column & dura mater of the meninges
what does the epidural space contain fat & supportive connective tissues to cushion the dura mater
subdural space in both the skull & vertebral column, this is located btw the dura mater & the arachnoid membrane
arachnoid membrane resembles a spider web; second layer of the meninges & is located btw the dura mater & pia mater
arachnoid having to do w/ spiders
how is arachnoid membrane attached & why loosely attached o the other meninges to allow space for fluid to flow btw the layers
subarachnoid space located below the arachnoid membrane & above pia mater, contains cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater 3rd layer of meninges, located nearest to the brain & spinal cord.
pia mater consists of delicate connective tissue that contains rich supply of blood vessels
pia tender or delicate
cerebrospinal fluid aka spinal fluid; produced by special capillaries w/in 4 ventricles located in middle region of cerebrum
cerebrospinal fluid color, consistency, location clear, colorless, watery fluid that flows throughout the brain & around spinal cord.
functions of cerebrospinal fluid cool/ cushion brain & spinal column from shock or injury, nourish brain & cord by transporting nutrients & chemical messengers
cerebrum largest & upper-most portion of the brain. Responsible for all thought, judgement, memory, emotion, controlling/ integrating motor & sensory functions
cerebrum vs cerebellum cerebellum is below the cerebrum
how many lobes in cerebrum 4
functions of cerebrum controls highest level of thought: judgement, memory, association, critical thinking. Processes sensations & controls all voluntary muscle activity
thalmus location below cerebrum
functions of thalmus relays sensory stimuli from spinal cord & midbrain to cerebral cortex. Suppresses some stimuli & magnifies others
hypothalmus location below thalmus
functions of the hypothalmus controls vital body functions
cerebellum location located in the lower back of the cranium below the cerebrum
functions of the cerebellum coordinates muscular activity & balance for smooth & steady movements
brainstem location in base of brain & forms connection btw brain & spinal cord. Consists of midbrain, pons, & medulla oblongata
functions of brainstem controls functions necessary for survival (breathing, digestion, heart rate, bp) & for arousal (being awake/ alert)
cerebral pertaining to the cerebrum or to the brain
cerebr brain
cerebral cortex made up of gray matter; outer layer of the cerebrum & made up of elevated folds & deep fissures
gyri elevated folds of gray matter in cerebral cortex
sulci fissures of the cerebral cortex
fissure normally occurring deep groove
cerebral hemispheres how cerebrum is divided
corpus callosum where 2 cerebral hemispheres are connected & lower midpoint
left cerebral hemisphere controls majority of functions on the RT side of body. Injury to LT hemisphere produces sensory/ motor deficits on RT of body
right cerebral hemisphere controls most of the functions on LT side of body. Injury to RT hemisphere produces sensory/ motor deficits on LT of body
cerebral lobes each cerebral hemisphere is subdivided to create these pairs & each named for bone of cranium that covers it
frontal lobe controls skilled motor functions, memory, & behavior
parietal lobe receives & interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in tongue, skin, & muscles
occipital lobe controls eyesight
temporal lobe controls senses of hearing & smell, & ability to create, store, & access new information
thalamus located below the cerebrum, produces sensations by relaying impulses to & from cerebrum & the sense of organs of the body
hypothalamus location located below the thalamus
hypothalamus functions Regulates: autonomic nervous system, emotional responses, body temp, hunger, thirst, sleep/wake cycle, pituitary & endocrine
cerebellum location 2nd-largest part of brain. Located @ back of head below posterior portion of cerebrum
cerebellum functions receives incoming messages regarding movement w/ joints, muscle tone, & positions of body. Messages relayed to different parts of brain that control motions of skeletal muscles.
general functions of cerebellum produce smooth & coordinated movements, to maintain equilibrium, & to sustain normal posture
midbrain and pons Part of brainstem; provide conduction pathways to & from higher & lower centers of the brain. Control reflexes for movements of the eyes & head in response to visual & auditory stimuli
medulla oblongata located @ lowest part of brainstem, is connected to spinal cord. Controls basic survival functions:breathing, heart rate, bp & reflexes for coughing, vomiting, sneezing, swallowing
spinal cord long, fragile, tube-like structure that begins @ end of brainstem & continues down almost to bottom of spinal column.
what nerves are contained in spinal column all nerves that affect the limbs & lower part of the body, & serves as pathway for impulses traveling to & from brain
what surrounds spinal column inside protected area? cerebrospinal fluid and meninges
3 types of specialized peripheral nerves that transmit signals to & from CNS autonomic, sensory, & somatic nerve fibers
autonomic nerve fibers carry instructions to the organs & glands from the autonomic nervous system
sensory nerve fibers receive external stimuli, such as how something feels, & transmit this info to the brain where it is interpreted
somatic nerve fibers aka motor nerve fibers, convey info that controls the body's voluntary muscular movements
12 pairs of cranial nerves originate from under-surface of brain. 2 nerves of a pair are identical in function/ structure, & ea pr serves 1/2 of body.
how are cranial nerves identified Roman numerals & are named for the area or function they serve
31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves are grouped together & named based on region of body they innervate. Where? Within each region nerves referred to by #. cervical= C1-C8, thoracic= T1-T12, lumbar= L1-L5, & sacral= S1-S5.
what is the lumbar plexis made up of 1st 4 lumbar nerves L1-L4 & serves the lower back.
2 divisions of autonomic nervous system sympathetic nerves & parasympathetic nerves
homeostasis process of maintaining the constant internal environment of the body
sympathetic nerves prepare body for emergencies & stress by increasing the respiratory rate, heart rate, & blood flow to muscles.
sympathetic nerves are aroused as part of this fight-or-flight response, which is the body's natural reaction to real or imaginary danger
parasympathetic nerves return the body to normal after a response to stress. Also maintain normal body function during ordinary circumstances
anesthesiologist physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents b4 & during surgery
an- without
esthesi feeling
anesthetist medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia but is not a physician, for ex, nurse anesthetist
esthet feeling
neurologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the nervous system
neurosurgeon physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
psychiatrist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, & mental illness
psychologist has doctoral degree (PhD or PsyD) but is not medical Dr. Specialist evaluates & treats emotional problems & mental illness
social worker trained therapist, usually w/ master's degree (MSW)
cephalagia aka headache; pain in the head
cephal head
migraine headache my be preceded by warning aura, throbbing pain on one side of head. Primarily affect women & sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, & light/ sound sensitivity
warning aura a visual disturbance perceived by patient preceding a migraine headache or epileptic seizure
cluster headaches intensely painful headaches that affect 1 side of head & may be assoc w/ tearing of the eyes & nasal congestion. Mostly men
encephalocele aka craniocele; congenital herniation of brain tissue through gap in skull
conginital present at birth
herniation protrusion of a structure from its normal position
meningocele congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
hydrocephalus condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain. Can occur @ birth or later in life.
meningioma common, slow-growing, & usually benign tumor of the meninges
meningitis aka infection meningitis; inflammation of the meninges of the brain & spinal cord. Can be caused by bacterial or viral infection elsewhere in body.
symptoms of meningitis intense headache & flu-like symptoms.
less-common form of meningitis bacterial, which is sometimes fatal
cognition describes the mental activities associated w/ thinking, learning, & memory
mild cognitive impairment memory disorder, usually associated w/ recently acquired info, which may be predictor of Alzheimer's disease
dementia slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, & judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
senile dementia dementia of the aged
sundowning refers to a group of symptoms leading to a state of confusion that can happen towards the end of the day in patients w/ dementia
vascular dementia form of dementia caused by a stroke or other restriction of the flow of blood to the brain.
% of dementia cases from vascular demetia 10-20%, primary cause though is Alzherimer's disease
encephalitis inflammation of the brain, can be caused by viral infection such as rabies
Reye's syndrome RS, serious & potentially deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting & confusion. Sometimes follows viral illness in which child was treated w/ aspirin
tetanus aka lockjaw; an acute & potentially fatal infection of CNS caused by toxin produced by tentanus bacteria. Can be prevented through immunization.
Tourette syndrome TS, complex neurological disorder characterized by involuntary tics, grunts, & compulsive utterances that sometimes includes obscenities
neurodegenerative disease aka degenerative nerve disease; is an umbrella term for disorders in which there is a progressive loss of the structure or functions of the neurons
Alzheimer's disease AD; a group of disorders involving parts of the brain that control thought, memory, & language.
leading form of dementia, marked by progressive deterioration that affects both memory & reasoning capabilities of an individual Alzheimer's disease
Huntington's disease a genetic disorder that is classified as a neurodegenerative disease
Parkinson's disease PD; chronic, degenerative CNS disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, & slow or shuffling gait.
gait manner of walking
what causes the slow shuffling or gait associated w/ Parkinsons? gradual progressive loss of control over movements due to inadequate levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
Lewy body dementia 2nd most common type of dementia, occurs when abnormal proteins interfere w/cell function in brain. Named after Frederick
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis aka Lou Gehrig's disease; rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles. Patients become progressively weaker until completely paralyzed & die
amnesia memory disturbance characterized by total or partial inability to recall past experiences. Can be caused by brain injury, illness, or psychological disturbance
concussion violent shaking up or jarring of the brain, may result in temporary loss of awareness & function
concuss shaken together
-ion condition or state of
cerebral contusion bruising of the brain tissue as a result of a head injury that causes brain to bounce against rigid bone of skull
contus bruise
cranial hematoma collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain, named for their location, sometimes caused by minor/major head injury
epidural hematoma located above dura mater
subdural hematoma located below dura mater
traumatic brain injury blow to the head or a penetrating head injury that damages the brain. Not all blows to head result in brain damage.
coup describes injury occurring w/in skull near point of impact, such as hitting the windshield in auto accident.
contrecoup aka counterblow; injury that occurs beneath the skull opposite the area of impact
shaken baby syndrome results of a child being violently shaken by someone. Action can cause brain injury, blindness, fractures, seizures, paralysis, death
levels of consciousness LOC; describe measurement of response to arousal & stimulus
altered levels of consciousness ALOC; refer to a decrease in consciousness due to injury, disease, or substances such as medication, drugs, or alcohol
being conscious state of being awake, alert, aware, and responding appropriately
being unconscious state of being unaware & unable to respond to any stimuli, including pain
lethargy lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, & apathy.
apathy indifference & a reduced level of activity
lethargic a person who is at this level of consciousness
stupor unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly despite vigorous, repeated attempts
syncope aka fainting; brief loss of consciousness caused by decreased flow of blood to brain
coma profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, & lack of speech
comatose refers to person who is in a coma
persistent vegetative state type of coma in which patient exhibits altering sleep & wake cycles; but due to severe damage to certain areas of brain, person is unconscious even when appearing to be awake.
brain dead person considered this when brain has ceased functioning. Vital functions like breathing can sometimes be maintained artificially to allow for organ donation.
delirium acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking & memory, agitation, & hallucinations
brain tumor abnormal growth located inside skull
invasive malignant brain tumor destroys brain tissue. When originates in brain, considered primary site - if metastasizes (spreads) other is secondary site
benign brain tumor does not invade brain tissue, but can damage brain tissue from intracranial pressure since surrounded by rigid bone
intracranial pressure amt of pressure inside skull. Elevated intracranial pressure can be due to tumor, injury, or improper drainage of cerebrospinal fluid
intracranial pressure restricts the flow of blood to the brain, depriving it of oxygen
cerebrovascular accident aka CVA, stroke; damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted b/c a blood vessel is blocked or ruptured
3rd leading cause of death & primary cause of long-term disability strokes
Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale 3 question scale used to recognize CVA using mnemonic FAST: Facial droop, Arm drift, Speech abnormality, Time
FAST, Facial droop one side of face droops or does not move equally when person smiles
FAST, Arm drift weakness on one side of the body, demonstrated by one arm drifting down when both arms are extended.
FAST, Speech abnormality slurred speech, using the wrong words, or unable to speak
FAST, Time if any of the signs are present, immediate conveyance to ER is essential for critical treatments such as thrombolytics
Location of stroke disruption: right damage to RT side of brain causes LT side symptoms
Location of stroke disruption: left damage to LT side of brain causes RT side symptoms
ischemic stroke most common in older ppl, occurs when flow of blood to brain is blocked by narrowing/ blockage of carotid artery.
ischemic pertaining to disruption of blood supply
thrombotic stroke type of ischemic stroke which occurs when blood clot forms in carotid artery & blocks it.
embolic stroke occurs when blood clot or other debris forms in a blood vessel somewhere other than brain & travels through bloodstream to lodge in narrower brain arteries
transient ischemic stroke aka TIA, or mini-stroke; temporary interruption in blood supply to brain. Numbness, blurred vision, dizziness, loss of balance
transient passing quickly
Passes in less than an hour, but incident is often warning sign @ risk for one more severe transient ischemic stroke
aphasia often caused by brain damage associated w/ stroke; loss of ability to speak, write, &/or comprehend the written or spoken word
hemorrhagic stroke aka bleed; occurs when a blood vessel in brain leaks or when aneurysm w/in brain ruptures
aneurysm localized, weak, balloon-like enlargement of an artery wall. Less common than ischemic strokes & often fatal.
arteriovenous malformation 1 of the causes of hemorrhagic strokes. Abnormal connection btw arteries & veins in brain, usually congenital & can rupture suddenly @ any age
insomnia prolonged or abnormal ability to sleep. Usually a symptom of another problem such as depression, pain, or excessive caffeine
narcolepsy sleep disorder consisting of sudden & uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day
narc/o stupor
sleep deprivation sufficient lack of restorative sleep over a cumulative period so as to cause physical or psychiatric symptoms & affect routine performance or task.
somnambulism aka sleepwalking or noctambulism; condition of walking or performing some other activity w/o awakening
ambul to walk
infarct localized area of dead tissue caused by lack of blood
myelitis inflammation of spinal cord or inflammation of bone marrow
myelosis tumor of the spinal cord or abnormal proliferation of bone marrow
poliomyelitis aka polio; highly contagious viral infection of brainstem & spinal cord that sometimes leads to paralysis. No known cure but prevented through vaccinations
post-polio syndrome recurrence later in life of some polio symptoms that had childhood poliomyelitis & recovered
radiculitis aka pinched nerve; inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain & numbness radiating down the affected limb
radicul root or nerve root
cervical radiculopathy nerve pain caused by pressure on spinal nerve roots in neck region
lumbar radiculopathy nerve pain in lower back caused by muscle spasms or nerve root irritation from compression of vertebral disks (like herniated)
multiple sclerosis MS; progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath
MS scars & disrupts: scars the brain, spinal cord, & optic nerves & disrupts the transmission of nerve impulses. Pain & physical/ cognitive probs
demyelination loss of patches of protective myelin sheath
exacerbations periods of this with MS; episodes of worsening symptoms also referred to as flares. Between episodes = remission
remission period of time which symptoms ease, but disease has not been cured
Bell's palsy temporary paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve that causes paralysis of the face, only on affected side. Can include inability to close the eye, pain, tearing, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound in affected ear, & impairment of taste
Guillain-Barre syndrome aka infection polyneuritis; an inflammation of the myelin sheath or peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that can lead to temporary paralysis. Rare.
neuritis inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain & sometimes loss of function
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, & tingling along course of affected nerve through thigh, leg, foot
trigeminal neuralgia characterized by severe, lightening-like pain due to inflammation of the 5th cranial nerve. Sudden, intense, brief attacks of sharp pain affect cheek, lips, & gums on 1 side.
cerebral palsy condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, & other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects cerebrum.
spasticity condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted
palsy paralysis of a body part that is often accompanied by loss of feeling & uncontrolled body movements, such as shaking
epilepsy aka seizure disorder; chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures or varying severity. Usually controlled w/ meds
seizure sudden surge of electrical activity in brain that affects how person feels or acts for short period. Some hardly noticed, others cause brief loss of consciousness.
tonic-clonic seizure aka grand mal seizure; involves entire body. Tonic phase: body becomes rigid; clonic phase: uncontrolled jerking
absence seizure aka petit mal seizure; brief disturbance in brain function in which there is a loss of awareness often described as a staring episode
causalgia persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
caus buring
hyperesthesia condition of abnormal & excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
-esthesia sensation or feeling
paresthesia a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet but can also occur in other parts of body; could be 1st symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or drug side effect
peripheral neuropathy disorder of peripheral nerves that carry info to & from brain & spinal cord. Produces pain, loss of sensation, & inability to control muscles, particularly in arms/ legs
neuropathy any disease or damage to a nerve
mononeuropathy damage to a singular peripheral nerve, as in carpal tunnel syndrome
polyneuropathy when multiple peripheral nerves are damaged. Diabetes is common cause, as is trauma, vitamin def, alcoholism
restless legs syndrome RLS; neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable feelings in legs, produced by strong urge to move them.
magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography MRI & CT; important neuroimaging tools b/c facilitate examination of soft tissue structures of brain/ spinal cord
functional MRI fMRI, detects changes in blood flow in brain when patient is asked to perform a specific task. Gives clear picture of brain tissue relevant to task
carotid ultrasonography ultrasound study of carotid artery, performed to detect plaque buildup in the artery to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke
ultra- beyond
echoencephalography use of ultrasound imaging to create a detailed visual image of brain for diagnostic purposes
electroencephalography process of recording electrical activity of the brain through use of electrodes attached to scalp.
electroencephalogram EEG, resulting record of an electroencephalography - can also be displayed on monitor as brain waves
electromyography EMG, utilized electrodes taped to skin to measure transfer of electrical signals in peripheral nerves to muscles
lumbar puncture aka LP, spinal tap; process of obtaining a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting needle into subarachnoid space of lumbar region to withdraw fluid. Changes in composition = indication of injury, infection, disease.
hypnotic depresses CNS & usually produces sleep
anticonvulsant administered to prevent seizures such as those associated w/ epilepsy
barbiturates class of drugs whose major action is calming or depressed effects on CNS
amobarbital barbiturate used as sedative & hypnotic
phenobarbital barbiturate used as a sedative & as an anticonvulsant
sedative depresses CNS to produce calm & diminished responsiveness w/o producing sleep
sedation effect produced by a sedative.
anesthesia absence of normal sensation, especially to pain, that is induced by the administration of an anesthetic agent
anesthetic medication used to induce anesthesia; may be topical, local, regional, or general.
epidural anesthesia regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into epidural space of lumbar or sacral region of spine.
general anesthesia involves total loss of body sensation & consciousness induced by anesthetic agents administered primarily by inhalation or IV
local anesthesia causes loss of sensation in a limited area by injecting an anesthetic solution near that area.
regional anesthesia temp interruption of nerve conduction, is produced by injecting an anesthetic solution near the nerves to be blocked
spinal anesthesia regional anesthesia produced by injecting meds into subarachnoid space. As w/ epidural, patient remains conscious
topical anesthesia numbs only tissue surface & is applied to waist or lower chest
deep brain stimulation DBS, neurosurgical procedure used in treatment of dystonia, tremors, & Parkinson's. Device to stimulate brain w/ mild electrical signals is implanted in brain & is connected to stimulator implanted near collar bone.
dystonia impairment of voluntary muscle movement
gamma knife surgery type of radiation treatment for brain tumors performed w/o knife or an incision. Surgeon uses gamma radiation to destroy diseased tissue while preserving healthy tissue around tumor
gamma radiation characterized by high energy & a short wavelength, also used in nuclear medicine
electroconvulsive therapy aka ECT, electroshock therapy; procedure in which small amt of electric current passed through brain, deliberately triggering a brief seizure in order to reverse symptoms of certain illnesses
lobectomy surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure disorders that cannot be controlled w/ meds
thalamotomy surgical incision into thalamus; destroys brain cells, is primarily performed to quite tremors of Parkinson's disease
thalam thalamus
transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS uses brief, powerful electromagnetic pulses to alter electrical pathways in the brain
neuroplasty surgical repair of a nerve or nerves
neurorrhaphy surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
neurotomy surgical division or dissection (cutting) of a nerve
anxiety disorders mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation. W/o treatment = chronic
generalized anxiety disorder GAD; characterized by chronic, excessive worrying. Physical symptoms assoc w/ this condition can include muscle tension, sleep disturbance, irritability, trouble concentrating, & restlessness.
panic attack unexpected, sudden experience of fear in the absence of danger, accompanied by physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chest tightness, dizziness, sweating, nausea, feelings of unreality, choking sensations, or combination.
panic attack is an unneeded.... fight-or-flight response
panic disorder characterized by fear of panic attacks, can cause agoraphobia or other phobias
post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD; may develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to individual or someone else, during which person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror.
symptoms of PTSD emotional numbing, hyper-arousal, anxiety, sleep disorders, & persistent reliving of the event
phobia persistent, irrational fear of a specific thing or situation, strong enough to cause significant distress, to interfere w/ functioning, & lead to avoidance of thing/ situation
-phobia name of the feared thing or situation
acrophobia an excessive fear of heights
acr/o top
agoraphobia excessive fear of environments where person fears a panic atack might occur. Might not leave home.
agor/a marketplace
claustrophobia an abnormal fear of being in small or enclosed spaces
claustr/o barrier
social anxiety disorder aka social phobia; excessive fear of social situations where person fears negative evaluation by others & embarassing self in front of others
obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD; recurrent obsessions (repetitive, intrusive, distressing thoughts or impulses) &/or compulsions (repeatedly feeling compelled to do things like wash/ pray). Must do things or increases anxiety
hoarding disorder characterized by over accumulation of belongings in way that interferes w/ daily living. Can create unsafe & unsanitary living conditions
attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder ADHD; short attention span & impulsive behavior that is inappropriate for child's developmental age.
hyperactivity restlessness or a continuing excess of movement
attention deficit disorder ADD; used if hyperactivity not present
dyslexia aka developmental reading disorder; substandard reading achievement due to inability of brain to process symbols correctly
learning disabilities disorders found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills such as processing language
intellectual disability aka intellectual development disorder; diagnosis of significant below-avg intellectual & adaptive functioning present from birth or early infancy
autistic spectrum disorder ASD; condition w/ different levels of symptom severity in which a young child has difficulty developing normal social relationships & communication, narrowly focused, intense interests
autism significant developmental delays, including speech/ language.
Asperger's syndrome usually have normal or above-avg intelligence but are impaired in social interactions & nonverbal communication
dissociative disorders occur when normal thought is separated from consciousness
dissociative identity disorder formerly multiple personality disorder; mental illness w/ presence of 2 or more distinct personalities, ea w/ own characteristics
impulse control disorders group of psychiatric disorders characterized by failure to resist and impulse despite potential negative consequences
-mania madness
kleptomania disorder where repeatedly steal objects neither for personal use nor for monetary value
pyromania disorder where repeatedly & deliberately set fires
oppositional defiant disorder a child or adolescent's persistent angry, uncooperative, & disruptive behavior directed toward authority figures, disrupts daily activities
bipolar disorder cycles of severe mood changes shifting btw highs and lows that affect person's attitude, energy, & ability to function
bipolar disorder highs manic behavior, which could include euphoria (intense happiness/ excitement)
bipolar disorder lows depression
manic behavior includes an abnormally elevated mood of euphoria, including inappropriate elation, increased irritability, severe insomnia, poor judgment, & inappropriate social behavior
depression common mood disorder; lethargy & sadness, as well as loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities. May lead to feeling of worthlessness & thoughts of death, self-harm, or suicide
suicide intentional taking of one's own life
persistent depressive disorder aka dysthymia; low-grade, chronic depression w/ symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but persistent on a majority of days for 2 or more yrs
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder DMDD; newer diagnosis for children who have frequent, severe temper outbursts & are chronically unstable.
seasonal affective disorder SAD; seasonal bout of depression assoc w/ decrease hours of daylight during winter months
anorexia nervosa false perception of body appearance, intense fear of gaining weight & inability to maintain healthy body weight. Voluntary starvation/ excessive exercising cause emanciatedness
emaciated abnormally thin
bulimia nervosa eating disorder; frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors like self-induced vomiting, excessive exercising, or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or meds
binge eating disorder BED; frequent episodes of eating large qty's of food, accompanied by sense of loss of control & feelings of guilt or shame afterwards
personality disorder chronic pattern of inner experience & behavior that causes serious problems w/ relationships & work. Pattern pervasive & inflexible & leads to distress or impairment
antisocial personality disorder pattern of disregard for & violation of the rights of others.
borderline personality disorder impulsive actions, often w/ potential for self-harm, as well as mood instability & chaotic relationships.
narcissistic personality disorder pattern of extreme preoccupation w/ the self & complete lack of empathy for others.
empathy ability to understand another person's mental & emotional state w/o becoming personally involved
psychotic disorders loss of contact w/ reality & deterioration of normal social functioning
catatonic behavior marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, & tendency to remain in a fixed posture
delusion false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. Belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of one's culture/ faith
hallucination sensory perception (sight, touch, sound, smell, taste) experienced in absence of external stimulation
schizophrenia psychotic disorder, usually withdrawn from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, & hallucinations & accompanied in varying degrees by other emotional, behavioral, or intellectual disturbances.
somatic symptom disorder physical complaints or concerns about one's body that are out of proportion to any physical findings or disease
factitious disorder an individual acts as if he/she has a physical or mental illness when he/she is not really sick. Visible symptoms usually self-inflicted
factitious artificial, self-induced, or not naturally occurring
Munchausen syndrome aka factitious disorder
factitious disorder by proxy form of child abuse. While seeming concerned w/ child's well-being, mentally ill parent will falsify an illness in child by making up or inducing symptoms
conversion disorder serious temp or ongoing changes in function, such as paralysis or blindness, triggered by psychological factors rather than physical
malingering intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by incentives such as avoiding work.
substance abuse addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, meds, or illegal drugs. Abuse leads to significant impairment in functioning, danger to one's self or others, & recurrent legal/ interpersonal problems
alcoholism chronic alcohol dependence w/ specific signs & symptoms upon withdrawal
withdrawal psychological or physical syndrome (or both) caused by abrupt cessation of use of alcohol or drugs in an addicted individual
delirium tremens disorder involving sudden & severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping use of alcohol
drug abuse excessive use of illegal or recreational drugs, or misuse of prescription drugs
recreational drug one normally used for personal pleasure or satisfaction rather than medical purposes
drug overdose potentially fatal, accidental or intentional use of an illegal drug or prescription meds in an amt higher than what is safe or normal.
gender dysphoria person's gender at birth does not match gender with which they currently identify, potentially causing significant amts of stress
dysphoria dissatisfaction
transgender a person whose gender identity does not match their gender at birth
pychotropic drug acts primarily on the CNS, where produces temp changes affecting mind, emotions, & behavior. Used to control pain & treat narcolepsy & attention disorders
antidepressant administered to prevent or relieve depression, some to treat OCD & generalized anxiety disorders, or help relieve chronic pain
antipsychotic drug aka neuroleptic; to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking & mood that are assoc w/ neurological & psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, mania, delusional disorders
psych/o mind
anxiolytic drug aka antianxiety or tranquilizer; temporarily relieves anxiety & to reduce tension
mood-stabilizing drugs ex lithium; used to tread mood instability & bipolar disorders
stimulant works by increasing activity in certain areas of brain to increase concentration & wakefulness. Overuse can cause sleeplessness & heart palpitations
psychoanalysis based on idea that mental disorders have underlying causes stemming from childhood & can only be overcome by gaining insight into one's feeling & patterns of behavior
behavioral therapy focuses on changing behavior by identifying problem behaviors, replacing them w/ appropriate behaviors &using rewards or other consequences to make changes
cognitive behavioral therapy CBT; focuses on changing thoughts that are affecting person's emotions & actions. These are ID'd & then challenged through logic, gathering evidence, testing in action, or combo
dialectical behavior therapy DBT, modified version of CBT, used to treat ppl w/ suicidal thoughts, self-harm, or borderline personality disorder
hypnotherapy use of hypnosis to produce an altered state of focused attn in which patient may be more willing to believe & act on suggestions
AD Alzheimer's disease
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
CP cerebral palsy
CFS cerebrospinal fluid
EEG electroencephalography
ICP intracranial pressure
LOC levels of consciousness or loss of consciousness
LP lumbar puncture
MS multiple sclerosis
OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder
PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder
Sz seizure
TIA transient ischemic attack
Created by: kld0519