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Stack #250288

endocrine hormones

growth hormones (GH) or somatotropin(STH) gland: anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), effect: stimulates growth of bones, increases protein anabolism (build up) muscle, Increases fat catabolism (breakdown of fat), Inhibits glucose metabolism, Increases blood glucose levels. Non Tropic
Luteinizing hormone (LH) gland: anterior pituitary(adenohypophysis) , effect: stimulates ovaries (ovulation) and testies Tropic Hormone (stimulates the corpus luteum of the ovaries)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) gland: anterior pituitary(adenohypophysis), effect: stimulated thyroid gland Tropic Hormone
Adrenocorticoptropic hormone (ACTH) gland: anterior pituitary(adenohypophysis) , effect: promotes normal growth and development of adrenal cortex&causes it to secrete hormones, stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids Tropic Hormone
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) gland: anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), effect: stimulates gonads to produce sperm and ova Tropic Hormone (stimulates structures within ovaries called primary follicles)
Prolactin Gland: anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), effect: Milk secretions Non Tropic
Oxytocin gland: posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis) effect: stimulates contractions of uterus and mammary glands, milk ejection from the breast.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) gland: posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis), effect: produced when the body is dehydrated, Increases water reabsorbtion into the blood from the kidneys (which will decrease urine output and raise BP)
Thyroid hormone gland: thyroid, effect: regulation of metabolic rate of cells & regulates cell growth & tissue differentiation: T3 (triiodothyronine) T4 (thyroxine)
Calcitonin gland: thyroid, effect: lowers blood calcium levels by moving calcium from the blood to the bone (produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid)
Parathyroidhormone gland: parathyroid, effect: raises blood calcium levels by moving blood from the bone to the blood (antagonist to calcitonin) main hormone body uses to maintain calcium homeostasis
Aldosterone Gland: Adrenal cortex in the Zona Glomerulosa layer(outer layer) Mineralcorticoids Effects: sodium and water retention, decrease urine output, raises BP, sodium reabsorbtion
Cortisol Gland: Adrenal Cortex in the Zona Fasciculata (middle layer) Glucocorticoids Effects: mobilizes proteins for gluconcogenesis, accelerates mobilization and metabolism of lipids, increases BP, in high concentration causes a decrease in antibody formation
gonadocorticoids Gland: Adrenal Cortex in the Zona Reticularis (innermost layer) Effects: normal production of adrenal androgens (male hormones), stimulate axillary and pubic hair growth in boys and girls
Epinephrine (adrenaline) gland: adrenal medulla, effect: raises blood sugar by increasing rate of glycogen breakdown by liver 80% of medulla’s secretion
nonepinephrine (noradrenaline) gland: adrenal medulla, effect: raises blood sugar by increasing rate of glycogen breakdown by liver, 20% of medulla’s secretion, prolongs the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, bind to receptors of sympathetic effectors
Insulin gland: pancreas Islets, effect: lowers blood glucose levels, moves glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into cells antagonist to glucagon
Glucagon gland: pancreas Islets, effect: raises blood glucose levels, converts glycogen to glucose in liver cells, stimulates gluconeogenesis (transformation of fatty acids and amino acids into glucose)
Thymosin gland: thymus, effect: stimulates T lymphocytes as part of the immune response
Melatonin gland: pineal gland, effect: supports biological clock, thought to induce sleep “time keeping hormone”
estrogen gland: Gonads; ovaries, effect: promote female sexual characteristics, helps regulate menstrual cycle
progesterone gland: Gonads; ovaries, effect: maintains the lining of the uterus (secreted by the coupus lutem)
Androgens (mainly testosterone) gland: Gonads; testes, effect: support sperm production and male characteristics
Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG Gland: Placenta Effects: only present during pregnancy, maintains uterine lining during pregnancy, presence in urine used as a pregnancy test
Gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin (CCK) Not and endocrine gland: gastric and intestinal mucosa Effects: regulate secretory and motor activities in digestion
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) Not and endocrine gland: Heart Effects: promotes sodium& water loss from the body into the urine, antagonist to aldosterone (urine output would increase and BP would go down, works like a diuretic)



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