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UGS Anatomy 1

Urogenital System Anatomy- Urinary System

QuestionAnswer
The Kidney is made up of an outer ______ and inner _____ Cortex, Medulla
The sections of the renal cortex between the pyramids of the medulla are called: Renal columns
A renal pyramid and its surrounding column is called a: Renal lobe
Generally, what is the ureter? The duct of the kidney
The part of the ureter which runs in the kidney is called the: Pelvis of the ureter/ Renal pelvis
The ureter is made up of : 2 major calyces
The Major calyces are each formed of: 3-4 minor calyces
At the apex of each renal pyramid are the: Renal Papilla
The renal papilla opens into the; Minor calyces
How many nephrons make up a single kidney? About 1 million
Each nephron and collecting duct make up: Urinoneprhous tube
The renal corpuscle is contained in the: Nephron
The renal corpuscle is made up of 2 parts, which are: The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
The glomerulus is a tuft of: Capillaries
The afferent arterioles have a wider diameter than the efferent arterioles. What purpose does this serve? The wider diameter of the afferent arterioles allows for a greater BP, which increases the force of filtration
The glomerulus is surrounded by: Bowman's Capsule
The glomerulus opens into: The proximal convoluted tubules
The PCT open into the: Loop of Henle
The Loop of Henle is made up of 3 parts, which are: 1) The thin descending segment 2) The thin ascending segment 3) The thick ascending segment
The last part of the loop of Henle opens into the: Distal convoluted tubules
The Distal convoluted tubules open into the: Collecting duct
What is fluid into the glomerulus? Plasma without plasma proteins
Why do the plasma and filtrate have equal osmolarity? Due to the free filtration of water and solutes throughout the renal tubules
Which substances in the plasma are completely reabsorbed in the nephrons? Glucose and amino acids
Which reabsorbed substance is the MOST important function of the kidney? Sodium
Why is sodium reabsorption important? Sodium maintains the EC volume, which means that its maintains blood volume. Maintenance of blood volume aids in maintaining blood pressure.
What are the layers of Bowman's Capsule? A visceral and parietal layer
The visceral layer lies just above: The thickened glomerular basement membrane
The visceral layer is made up of: Podocytes (Visceral layer= glomerular epithelium)
Beneath the visceral layer, there are: Glomerular capillaries
Deep to the glomerular capillaries are the: Podocytes
Podocytes are separated from the capillaries by: Primary processes
Primary processes wrap around the capillaries and form: Secondary processes / pedicles
What structures make up the filtration barrier of the glomerulus? Fenestrated epithelium of the glomerular capillaries, the fused basal lamina of the endothelial cells, podocytes, and the filtration slits of podocytes
The filtration barrier allows the passage of what substances? Water, ions, and small molecules from the bloodstream
The filtration barrier PREVENTS the passage of what substances? Large and/or negatively charged proteins (such as albumin)
The filtration pore or slit should allow the passage of molecules under 160000 microns, so why doesn’t it allow the passage of albumin? Because albumin is negatively charged, as is the filtration barrier, so repulsion of like charges occurs
What is the main blood supply of the kidney? The renal artery, which originates from the abdominal aorta
What are the main divisions of the renal artery? Anterior and Posterior
The anterior part of the renal artery is divided into: 4 segmental arteries
The posterior part of the renal artery is divided into: 1 segmental artery
What is the pathway of oxygenated blood through the kidney? Renal artery --> Segmental artery --> Lobar artery -->Interlobar artery --> Arcuate artery --> interlobular artery --> Afferent arterioles --> efferent arterioles -->vasa recta
Where are the vasa recta located? Around the Loop of Henle in Juxtamedullary nephrons
What are the two types of nephrons in the kidney? Cortical and Juxtamedullary nephrons
What is the most common type of nephron in the kidney? Cortical nephrons at 80-85%
What is the main difference between the types of the nephrons? Juxtamedullary nephrons have a longer Loop of Henle and produce concentrated urine
What are the two types of capillaries in the nephrons? Glomerular capillaries and peritubular capillaries
What is the function of peritubular capillaries? Reabsorption of water, glucose, and salts
High BP aids in the process of filtration, while low BP aids in the process of : Reabsorption
What fraction of the cardiac output supplies the kidneys? 1/4 Almost 1200 or 1100 mL
What percentage of the blood entering the kidney is plasma? 57% 625 mL
What percentage of the plasma entering the kidney is filtered? 20% 125 mL
What is the glomerular filtration rate of the kidney? 125 mL/min
How much of the GFR makes up urine? 1 mL out of 125 mL/min
What are the 3 stages of Urine formation? Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
What are the daily filtered substances and their amounts? 180L of water 680g of Na 180g of glucose 54g of urea
What are the percentages of reabsorption for filtered substances? 99% of water is reabsorbed 99.5% of sodium is reabsorbed 100% of glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed 44% of urea is reabsorbed
How do we find the filtration fraction? GFR/RPF
What is the normal filtration fraction? 0.2 or 20%
How many renal pyramids is the medulla made up of? 12
Extending from the base of the renal pyramid to the cortex are striations called: Medullary rays
Medullary rays and associated tubules are called: Renal lobules
The contractile, phagocytic cells between the glomerular cells are the: Mesangial cells
Mesangial cells support the capillary walls by: Producing Intracellular substance
How much glomerular filtrate is produced per 24 hours? 180 L
What percentage of renal blood flow perfuses the medulla and how? 5% Via the vasa recta
Which forces favor filtration? Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure 45 mmHg
Which forces oppose filtration? Capsular hydrostatic pressure (10mmHg) and Blood Colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerulus (19mmHg)
What is the effect of constriction of afferent arterioles on GFR, RPF, and FF? Decreased RPF and GFR Same FF
What is the effect of constriction of efferent arterioles on GFR, RPF, and FF? Decreased RPF Increased GFR Increased FF
What is the effect of increased plasma protein concentration on GFR, RPF, and FF? No change in the RPF Decreased GFR Decreased FF
What is the effect of decreased plasma protein concentration on GFR, RPF, and FF? No change in the RPF Increased GFR Increased FF
What is the effect of constriction of the ureter on GFR, RPF, and FF? No change in the RPF Decreased GFR Decreased FF
Describe the histology of proximal convuluted tubules: Stellate shaped Lumen Bound by a distinct brush border Cuboidal or low Columnar cells with indistinct lateral cell boundaries
Why does the cytoplasm of the PCT stain dark with eosin? Due to the large amount of mitochondria in the cell
What distinctive appearance is seen around the PCT? PAS-positive basal lamina
Describe the EM appearance of the PCT: 1) Apical golgi apparatus and basal mitochondria 2) Infolding and interdigitating at the base of the cell 3) Long, densely-packed microvilli at the apex 4) Apical canilliculi which form vesicles at the clefts in the base of the microvilli
What is the endocytic complex of the PCT made up of? 1) Apical canaliculi 2) Vesicles 3) Vacuoles
What is the function of the endocytic complex and how is it performed? Protein absorption Vacuoles condense and fuse with lysosomes, the acid hyrolases of which reduce the absorbed proteins to amino acids which are then released into the blood stream
Which substances are reabsorbed by the PCT? 65% of water, sodium, chloride, and potassium ALL glucose, and amino acids
What is the main mechanism of reabsorption of substances in the PCT? Sodium cotransport, antiport, or Na-K ATPase channels Water reabsorption follows solute transport
What is the effect of the reabsorption of Sodium and other solutes in the PCT? Increased osmolarity of the lateral intracellular space making the IC space slightly hyperosmotic at -3 mOsm/Kg H2O
What is the difference between the two halfs of the PCT? The first half mostly involves the reabsorption of Na along with bicarbonate The rise in Cl- leads to a favorable gradient for Cl- reabsorption with Na in the second half --> passive diffusion
Renal tubular epithelial cells are held together by: Tight junctions
Renal tubular epithelial cells are separated by: Intracellular spaces
Secretion or reabsorption via renal tubular cells is done across cells via the: Transcellular pathway
Secretion or reabsorption via renal tubular cells is done between cells via the: Paracellular pathway
Na reabsorption via the transcellular pathway depends on: Na-K-ATPase 1) Movement across apical membranes down an electrochemical gradient established by NA-K-ATPase 2) Movement across the basolateral membrane against an electrochemical gradients
What are the Na co-transport proteins? Na-glucose Na-Amino acids Na-phosphate Na-Cl-
What are the Na anti-porters? Na-H+ (Bicarboncate reabsorption)
How do we maintain water and increase the concentration of urine? By utilizing the Loop of Henle, the Vasa Recta, and ADH
What is a cause of diabetes insipidus related to urine concentration? ADH deficiency
A renal lobe is bounded by what? Interlobar arteries
What is the length and diameter of PCT? Length: 15mm Diameter: 60 microns
What is the length and diameter of DCT? Length: 8mm Diameter: 30 microns
What is the type of epithelium in the PCT and DCT? Transitional epithelium between cuboidal and low columnar epithelium
How can you differentiate between the PCT and DCT histologically? PCT: Brush border made up of continuous microvilli DCT: No brush border and there are few microvilli
The tight junction in the PCT are described as: Leaky
Why is there a gradient across the apical membrane of renal tubular cells? In the cell, Na concentration is 12 mmol/L and In the filtrate, Na concentration is 140 mmol/L which forms a gradient allowing sodium to travel across the apical membrane in downhill movement
What is the osmolarity of the filtrate in the proximal tubule? 300 mmol/kg of water
Which of the segments of the Loop of Henle is permeable to water? The Thin Descending Segment
Which of the segments of the Loop of Henle contains the most hypertonic fluid? The Thin Descending Segment
How much water is reabsorbed in the Thin Descending Segment? 15% of the total water reabsorbed
What is the concentration of solutes around the ThinkDescending Segments? 600 mosmol of urea outside 300 mosmol Na/Cl
Which of the segments of the Loop of Henle is impermeable to water? The thin and thick ascending segments
How does the concentration of the filtrate vary as it passes through the Loop of Henle? It becomes more hypotonic
What is the concentration of solutes around the Think Ascending Segment? 600 mosmol of Na/Cl inside 100 mosmol outside
How are solutes reabsorbed in the Loop of Henle? Symporter --> one carrier carries K+/Na+/Cl- -Increased K+ concentration in the cell causes K+ to move into the filtrate Antiporter --> Na reabsorbed, H+ released
What is unique about K+ in the Loop of Henle? It is reabsorbed AND secreted
What are the main parts of the DCT? 1) Early Segment 2) Macula Densa 3) Late segment
What are the characteristics of the Early segment of the DCT? It's a continuation of the thick ascending segment Known as the diluting cortical segment Reabsorption of Na and K+
The Macula Densa is part of the: Juxtaglomerular apparatus
What is an importance of the late segment of the DCT? Acid/Base balance
The Late segment is similar to the: Collecting tubule and duct
What are the types of cells in the late segment? Principle cells Intercalated cells
What is the histologic appearance of the principle cells? They are light staining and have clear boundaries
Principle cells act mainly under the effect of: ADH
What solutes are exchanged in the principle cells? K+ is secreted Na+ is reabsorbed (3%)
What solutes are exchanged in the intercalated cells? K+ is secreted and reabsorbed Secrete H+
What is the effect of Loop Diuretics on Na reabsorption? Prevention of Na reabsorption at the thick ascending segment of the Loop of Henle
Which is the effect of Thiazide diuretics on Na reabsorption? Prevent Na reabsorption in the early distal convoluted tubules
What is the effect of Potassium-sparing diuretics on Na reabsorption? Prevent Na reabsorption in the principle cells
When does the filtrate reach isotonicity in the tubules? At the cortical collecting ducts (the distal convoluted tubule)
What are the main functions of ADH and where is its main sight of action? Maintenance of body water and increases concentration of urine via increased reabsorption of water in the Loop of Henle, Vasa Recta, and collecting ducts
How do the vasa recta contribute to maintenance of body water? By making sure minimal blood enters the medulla and minerals aren’t washed away
The hyperosmolarity of urea is due to: reabsorption of urea and NaCl
What is the difference between urea and plasma osmolarity? Urine is 4x the hyperosmolarity
What is the only site of reabsorption of urea? At the end of the collecting duct
What are juxtaglomerular cells? Modified smooth muscles
Juxtaglomerular cells contains granules which secrete: Rennin
When is rennin secreted? In case of Na, BP, or ECF volume decrease
Rennin secretion leads to formation of which hormone? Angiotensin 2
What are the effects of angiotensin? 1) Vasoconstriction of vessels  Increased BP 2) Release aldosterone from the renal cortex – which stimulates sodium reabsorption 3) Stimulate release of ADH  Increased water reabsorption  Increased ECF
ADH has no effect on which renal tubules? The proximal convoluted tubules or thin descending segment of the loop of Henle
What are the causes of Diabetes Insipidus? 1) ADH being ineffective on tubules causing nephrogenesis 2) ADH not being present
What is the position of the kidneys relative to the peritoneum? Retroperitoneal
The kidney is adjacent to which vertebrae? T12-L3
What are the dimensions of the kidneys? 11 x 6 x 3 11 cm in length, 6 cm in width, 3 cm in girth
Which kidney is lower than the other? The right kidney because it is being 'pushed' down by the liver
What is the position of the kidneys relative to the ribs? The right kidney has one rib behind it (the 12th rib) and the left kidney has 2 ribs behind it (the 11th and 12th ribs) The kidney is separated from the ribs by the diaphragm
Which gland lies above the kidneys? Suprarenal/ Adrenal glands
What are the two borders of the kidney? An inner concave border and an outer convex border
What is the importance of the renal fascia surrounding the kidney? It separates the kidney from the suprarenal gland It continues as the transversalis fascia
Ptosis of the kidney or slight descent of the kidney can normally occur due to: Sudden weight loss
The lower half of the kidney is related to which muscles? The psoas major The diaphragm The quadratrus lumborum The transversus abdominus
How is a pneumothorax related to kidney injury? Both can be caused by rib fracture (more likely a fracture of the 11th rib, than the 12th)
What is the most anterior structure coming from the hilum of each kidney? The renal vein
Which renal vein is longer and why? The left vein is longer than the right vein because the veins drain into the inferior vena cava and the IVC lies closer to the right kidney, and therefore, the right renal vein
When is the surface area of glomerular capillaries maximum? When the mesangial cells are relaxed
How do the mesangial cells regulate the SA of glomerular capillaries? Contraction of mesangial cells reduces the available surface area, and glomerular filtration decreases
What is the thickness of the filtration membrane? 0.1 microns
How are the PCT differentiated from the DCT? The lumen of the DCT is usually wider Cells are shorter and lighter stained Nuclear profiles are seen in every cell, in part because every cell is binuclear A brush border is lacking
What are the ureters? Muscular tubes which conduct urine from the kidneys to the bladder
How is urine propelled throughout the ureter? Via peristalsis
The muscles in the wall of the ureter are separated into: An inner longitudinal layer and an outer circular layer
What are the surfaces of the kidney? Anterior and posterior
What are the poles of the kidney? Upper and lower poles The upper pole leans towards the midline, while the lower pole leans away
How much does the kidney weigh? 150 grams
How can you differentiate between the surfaces of the kidney? The anterior surface is irregular, while the posterior surface is flat
How can you differentiate between the poles of the kidney? The upper pole of the kidney is broad, while the lower pole is pointed
What are the three layers of tissue surrounding each kidney? 1) The deep layer, the renal capsule or fibrous capsule 2) The middle layer, the adipose capsule or perirenal fat 3) The superficial layer, the renal fascia
What is the renal capsule? A smooth, transparent sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter
What is the purpose of the renal capsule? It serves as a barrier against trauma and helps maintain the shape of the kidney.
The renal capsule only adheres to the kidney in case of: Inflammation
What is the adipose capsule? A mass of fatty tissue surrounding the renal capsule or fibrous capsule
What is the purpose of the adipose capsule? It also protects the kidney from trauma and holds it firmly in place within the abdominal cavity
What is the renal fascia? A thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue
What is the purpose of the renal fascia? It anchors the kidney to the surrounding structures and to the abdominal wall
What are the relations of the renal fascia? Anterior: Peritoneum Above: Blends with fascia over the diaphragm Medial: blends with the sheaths of the aorta and the IVC Lateral: Continuous with the transversalis fascia
What are the contents of the hilum of the kidney from anterior to posterior? Renal vein, renal artery, and the renal pelvis
What are the potential locations of the pelvis of the ureter? Completely outside the substance of the kidney or buried in the renal hilum or anywhere in between
Which ureter position allows for easy stone removal? Extra-renal
What are the peritoneal relations of the kidney? Partly covered by peritoneum anteriorly Between the liver and kidney is a part of the peritoneal cavity called hepatorenal pouch Between the stomach and the kidney is the lesser sac The stomach and the spleen are separated by the greater sac
What are the anterior relations of the right kidney? Suprarenal gland, liver, second part of duodenum, and right colic flexure
What are the posterior relations of the right kidney? Diaphragm, 12th rib, costodiaphragmatic recess of the pleura, psoas muscle, quadratus lumborum muscle, and transversus abdominus muscle
What are the anterior relations of the left kidney? Suprarenal gland, spleen, stomach, pancreas, left colic flexure, and coils of jejunum
What are the posterior relations of the left kidney? Diaphragm, costodiaphragmatic recess of the pleura, 11th and 12th rib, psoas muscle, quadratus lumborum muscle, and transversus abdominus muscle
What are the posterior relations of both kidneys? Subcoastal vessels Subcoastal, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal nerves
What does the abberant renal artery supply? The superior and or inferior pole of the kidney
How common is the presence of an accessory renal artery? It is present in 25-30% of the population
The accessory renal artery usually supplies: The renal artery
Do accessory renal arteries occur unilaterally or bilaterally usually? Unilaterally Occur Bilaterally in 15% of cases
In most cases, where does the accessory renal artery arise from? The abdominal aorta as a single artery and supplies the inferior pole of the kidney
What is the position of the ureters relative to the peritoneum? They lie beneath the peritoneum
What body walls are the ureters attached to? The posterior abdominal wall in the upper part and the lateral pelvic wall in the lower part
How long are the ureters? 25 cm or 10 inches
What is the diameter of the ureters? 3mm
What is the type of epithelium in the ureters? Transitional urinary epithelium Cuboidal to low columnar
How many layers of muscle are in the wall of the ureters? The muscles in the wall of the upper 2/3 of the ureter is made of 2 layers- inner longitudinal and outer circular. In the lower 1/3 of the ureter, there are 3 layers- inner longitudinal, middle circular, outer longitudinal (just like urinary bladder)
How do the ureters enter the pelvis? The ureter crosses the end of the common iliac artery to enter the pelvis It passes downward and backward following the anterior margin of the greater sciatic notch
Where does the ureter enter the bladder? Opposite the ischial spine, it turns forward and medially to reach the base of the urinary bladder It passes obliquely in the wall of the bladder for 1 inch before it opens at the side of the trigone
Where are the constriction of the ureter? 1) At the beginning of the ureter proper 2) At the pelvic brim 3) Where the ureter enters the bladder
What are the posterior relations of the abdominal ureter? Psoas Muscle Genitofemoral nerve Common iliac vessels Tips of L2-L5 transverse processes
What are the anterior relations of the right abdominal ureter? Descending duodenum Ileum and root of mesentery Gonadal vessels Right colic vessels ileocolic vessels
What are the anterior relations of the left abdominal ureter? Gonadal artery Left colic artery Loop of Jejunum Sigmoid mesentery Pelvic colon Mesocolon
What are the medial relations of the right abdominal ureter? IVC
What are the medial relations of the left abdominal ureter? Abdominal aorta Inferior mesenteric vein
What are the posterior relations of the pelvic ureter? Sacroiliac joint Internal iliac artery
What are the inferior relations of the pelvic ureter in the male? Seminal vesicles
What are the inferior relations of the pelvic ureter in the female? Lateral fornix of the vagina
What are the anterior relations of the pelvic ureter in the male? Ductus deferens
What are the anterior relations of the pelvic ureter in the female? The uterine artery contained in the broad ligament
What are the medial relations of the pelvic ureter in the female? Cervix
What is the relationship of the ureter to the supravaginal part of the cervix? The ureter lies 2 cm lateral to it
What is the relationship of the ureter and the vagina? The ureter runs slightly above the lateral fornix of the vagina
The blood supply of the upper part of the ureter is the: Renal artery
The blood supply of the middle part of the ureter is the: Aorta
The blood supply of the pelvic ureter is the: Vesical and uterine vessels from the internal iliac artery
What is the nerve supply of the ureter? The sympathetic T10-L1 nerves
Pain from the kidney and the extreme upper end of the ureter is felt at: Yhe back near the costovertebral angle
Pain from the middle and distal parts of the ureter is referred to the: The lower part of the abdominal wall, genital areas, or the inner aspect of the thigh
What is the difference between the location of the urinary bladder at birth and in adulthood? The urinary bladder is a pelvic organ in adults, but an abdominal organ at birth
When does the urinary bladder sink into the pelvic cavity? By the 6th year of life
How many surfaces, angles, and ducts does the urinary bladder have? 4 of each
What are the 4 surfaces of the bladder? 1) A superior surface 2) 2 inferolateral surfaces 3) An inferoposterior surface/ base
What is the shape of the surfaces of the bladder? Triangular
What are the 4 angles of the bladder? 1) The anterior angle/ apex 2) The inferior angle/neck 3) 2 Postero-Superior angles
What are the 4 ducts of the urinary bladder? 1) 2 ureters 2) Urethra 3) Urachus
Where on the bladder are the ureters attached? To the posterosuperior angles
Where on the bladder is the urethra attached? Neck of the bladder
Where on the bladder is the median umbilical ligament attached? To the apex
What are the relations of the superior surface of the bladder in males? Coils of the pelvic colon Terminal coils of the ileum
What are the relations of the superior surface of the bladder in females? The uterus but is separated from it by the uterovesical pouch, which may contain coils of intestine
What are the infero-lateral relations of the bladder in both sexes? In front, the sides lie in contact with the retropubic pad of fat and the bare pubic bone More posteriorly, they become related to the obturator internus above and the levator ani below
What are the relations of the base of the bladder/ inferoposterior surface in males? Anterior surface of the rectum, but the rectum is separated from the bladder by the 2 vasa deferentia and the 2 seminal vesicles
What are the relations of the base of the bladder in females? Anterior surface of the vagina, separating the bladder from the rectum
What are the relations of the neck of the bladder in males? It lies on the prostate
What are the relations of the neck of the bladder in females? It lies on the pelvic fascia
What are the peritoneal relations of the empty bladder? The superior surface and the upper inch of the base are covered by peritoneum
What are the peritoneal relations of the full bladder? When the bladder rises, it raises the peritoneum from the anterior abdominal wall so that it is in direct contact with the transversalis fascia for about 1 and 1/2 inches above the pubic bone
What is the difference between the mucous membrane of the bladder when it is full or empty? The main part of the mucous membrane is irregular and thrown into folds called rugose to increase the surface area When the bladder becomes full, the irregularity disappears and the mucous membrane becomes smoother
What par of the bladder is always smooth? The trigone
The trigone corresponds to what part of the bladder on the outside? Base
What are the points of the trigone made up of? The openings of the ureters, and the internal meatus of the urethra/ internal urethral orifice
Between the openings of the 2 ureters, there is a raised fold of mucous membrane called: The intrauretric ridge
Immediately behind the opening of the urethra is a small rounded elevation called the: Uvula vesicae
The uvula vesicae is caused by the: Underlying median lobe of the prostate
Which structure is posterior to the urinary bladder? Prostate
What is an important cause of urinary retention in the elederly? Due to senile enlargement of the prostate, the median lobes are also enlarged and this causes urine to accumulate behind the uvula vesica
How is the inside of the urinary bladder examined? Via cytoscopy
What is the distance between the 2 ureters when the bladder is empty and when it is distended? 1 inch when it is empty and 2 inches when it is distended
What is the function of the urethra in males? External discharge of urine and seminal fluid
What is the length of the male urethra? 18-20 cm
In the flaccid penis, how many curvatures are there in the urethra? 2 curvatures forming an S shape
How many curvatures are there in the urethra of the erect penis? 1 The distal curve is obliterated and it forms a J shape
Where does the male urethra begin and where does it end? It begins at the internal urethral orifice at the neck of the bladder and ends in the external urethral orifice at the tip of the penis
During the course of the male urethra, it passes through: The prostate, sphincter urethra, and the corpus spongiosum penis
What are the 3 parts of the male urethra? 1) Prostatic urethra 2) Membranous urethra a 3) Penile urethra
How long does the prostatic urethra extend for? 3 cm
What are the characteristics of the prostatic urethra? It is the widest and most dilatable part of the urethra
What is the shape of the prostatic urethra? Semilunar in shape on transverse section and is convexly directed forward
The posterior wall of the prostatic urethra is made up of: The urethral crest, the colliculus seminalis, and the prostatic sinuses
What is the urethral crest? A median longitudinal ridge of mucous membrane
What is the colliculus seminalis? An elevation in the middle of the urethral crest
What are the openings in the colliculus seminalis? A slit-like orifice where the prostatic utricle is situated and openings to the ejaculatory ducts on either side
What are the prostatic sinuses? Two vertical grooves which present about 20-30 opening of the prostatic glands each
What is the prostatic utricle? A blind sac, about 6 mm long, which lies within the prostate It is directed upwards and backwards between the median and posterior lobes of the prostate It is homologous with the uterus
How long is the membranous urethra? 1.5-2 cm long
What is pierced by the membranous urethra? The perineal membrane about 2.5 cm below and behind the pubic symphysis
What are the characteristics of the membranous urethra? It is the narrowest part and least dilatable part of the male urethra
What is the shape of the membranous urethra? On transverse section, it is star-shaped
The membranous urethra is surrounded by: The sphincter urethra
Which glands are on either side of the membranous urethra? The bulbourethral glands of Cowper
The ducts of the bulbourethral glands of Cowper open into The spongy part of urethra 2.5 cm after piercing the perineal membrane
How long is the penile urethra? 15 cm
What is the path of the penile urethra? The fixed part of the penile urethra runs forwards and upwards in the bulb of the penis It bends downwards in front of the lower part of pubic symphysis to continue as the free part of the penile urethra in the corpus spongiosum penis
What is the diameter of the penile urethra? 6 mm
The penile urethra is dilated within the glans penis to form: The navicular fossa
There are several small pit-like recesses in the urethral mucous membrane called: Lacunae of Morgagni
The largest lacuna of Morgagni is The Lacuna Magna or sinus of Guerin
What are the sphincters of the urethra? Internal Urethral Sphincter/ Sphincter Vesicae External Urethral Sphincter/Sphincter Urethra
Why is the internal urethral sphincter involuntary? Because it is supplied by the lower thoracic and upper lumbar sympathetic nerves
What does the internal urethral sphincter control? The neck of the bladder and prostatic urethra above the opening of ejaculatory ducts
What is the internal urethral sphincter made up of? Smooth muscle fibers with considerable elastic and collagenous fibers
The external urethral sphincter is voluntary because: It is made up of striated voluntary muscles
What is the external urethral sphincter supplied by? The perineal branch of the pudendal nerve
What does the external urethral sphincter control? The membranous urethra and is responsible for the voluntary holding of urine It is also attributed to the relaxation of the pelvic floor, including the sphincter urethrae
Created by: Ulaisl