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Urinary System

What force drives filtration at the glomerulus? Hydrostatic Blood Pressure
Glomerular filtration is a process of ____ driven by the ____ of the blood. Diffusion, Pressure
Common components of the filtrate are divided into four categories on the CD program. These include: a. Water b. Nitrogen Waste c. Ions d. Organic Molecules
Blood Pressure in the glomerulus is about ... 60 mmHg
What two pressures oppose filtration and what are their values? a. Colloid Osmotic Pressure b. Capsular Space Pressure
What is the normal net filtration pressure? 17 mmHg
With a glomerular filtration rate of 125 ml/min, how much plasma would be filtered per day? (in 24 hours) 180 L
In an exercising individual the afferent arteriole will DILATE or CONSTRICT to avoid excess fluid loss Constrict
Two mechanisms that provide auto regulatory control over renal processes include: a. Myogenic Mechanism b. Tubuloglomerular Mechanism
High osmolarity (or Na+ and Cl-) in the ascending loop of Henle will cause afferent arterioles to DILATE or CONSTRICT by releasing ____ Constrict, Vasocontrictor such as ATP
In periods of extreme stress, the sympathetic nervous system will override auto regulation. An increase in sympathetic flow to the kidney will result in what two important effects that will aid maintenance of blood pressure? a. Blood vessels located in the kidney will constrict which will result in the blood being diverted to other organs b. Maintenance of blood volume
Summarize reabsoption in the PCT. Basolateral transport of Na+: interstitial osmolarity increases causing diffusion of water. Decrease intracellular Na+ leads to additional Na+ reabsorption through luminal membrane
What percent of the filtrate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule? 65%
The simple squamous cells of the thin descending loop are permeable to ____ but impermeable to ____. Water, NaCl
The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to ____ but impermeable to ____. Na and Cl, K ions and water
What is the role of the loop of Henle? Forms and maintains the interstitial osmolarity gradient
What is the role of the Vasa Recta? Delivers nutrients without altering osmotic gradient
Aldosterone is stimulated by an increase or decrease in what ions? 1. Increase in Potassium 2. Decrease in Sodium
What does anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) increase in the luminal membrane? Water channels
In dehydration and over hydration, what would be the levels of: a. ADH? _____ Dehydration ____ Overhydration b. Aldosterone?___ Dehydration ____ Overhydration Increase, Decrease, Increase, Decrease
Urine with a "high normal osmolarity" and containing RBC's and protein indicate: Renal Disease
Urine with a very high osmolarity and glucose would indicate: Diabetes Mellitus
Urine with a very low osmolarity and high volume would indicate: Diabetes Insipidus
Where are fluids absorbed? Plasma in intestines
Where are excess fluids and electrolytes lost? Kidneys through urine
Name four of the six functions of water. 1. Maintain body temp 2. Protective cushion 3. Lubricant 4. Reactant 5. Solvent 6. Transport
The amount of water in the body depends on the amount of... Fat tissue
List the person with the highest and lowest percentage of total body water in each. Highest- New Borns- 73% Lowest- Older People- 43%
List the three fluid compartments and the percentage of total body water in each. a. Intracellular 62% b. Plasma 8% c. Interstitial 30%
Give an example of each of the following solutes: a. Ions/electrolytes b. Colloids c. Non electrolytes a. Sodium b. Proteins c. Non electrolytes
Name Extracellular cations: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium
Name Extracellular anions: Bicarbonate, Sulfate, Phosphate, Chloride
Name Intracellular cations: Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium
Name Intracellular anions: Bicarbonate, Sulfate, Phosphate, chloride
Within a fluid compartment, the total number of _____ must be equal to the total number of ____. Positive charges, Negative charges
Name four of the seven functions given for electrolytes: 1. Secondary active transport 2. Muscle contraction 3. Co-factors for enzymes 4. Action Potentials
What will happend to a RBC in a hypotonic solution Lyse (expand)
What will happend to a RBC in a hypertonic solution Crenate (Shrink)
What will happend to a RBC in a isotonic solution Will remain the same
What are the four primary mechanisms to regulate fluid homeostasis? 1. ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) 2. Thirst Mechanism 3. Aldosterone 4. Sympathetic Nervous System
What is the major stimulus of ADH? Increase osmolarity
What is the direct effect of ADH? Reabsoption of water
What effect will ADH have on plasma volume and osmolarity? Increase plasma volume and increase osmolarity
What effect will ADH have on urine volume and osmolarity? Increase urine volume and increase osmolarity
List three ways dehydration leads to increased thirst. 1. Increase plasma osmotic pressure 2. Decrease saliva 3. Decrease blood volume
What enzyme is release from the kidney in response to decreased blood pressure? Renin
What enzyme converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2? ACE
What are two effects of angiotensin 2? Release of aldosterone and vasoconstriction
How does aldosterone cause more sodium to be reabsorbed in the kidney? Inserts additional channels in DCT and collecting duct to allow Na+ to move into plasma
As a result what happens to blood volume and blood pressure? Increase
A decrease in blood volume and blood pressure will lead to a/an ____ in the sympathetic nervous system. Activation
This will result in a decrease, and increase or no change in the following: 1. Afferent Arteriolar Constriction 2. Blood Flow to Glomerulus 3. Urine Loss 4. Renin Release 1. Increase 2. Decrease 3. Decrease 4. Increase
Diabetes insipidus is due to ... Impaired ADH secretion
In diabetes insipidus what will happen to the following: 1. Urine Output 2. Plasma Sodium 3. Plasma Osmolarity 4. Thirst Increase in all