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IDR block 5 viruses

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Rabies virus uses ________ in conjunction with the Neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and the P75 Neurotrophin receptor (P75NTR) to facilitate it's entry into the cells.
Bite, mucosal membrane/wound contamination, aerosol, or corneal/other transplant Four primary routes of rabies virus transmission are?
2 weeks to 18 months Rabies virus has an incubation period of ____ weeks to ____ months with an average range of 30-90 days
Muscle; peripheral nervous system Rabies virus replicates in the ______ before entering the ______ _____ ______ and replicating again within the dorsal ganglion
Dorsal ganglion Rabies virus replicates a second time within the ______ _______ before ascending the spinal cord and infecting the brainstem, cerebellum and other brain structures.
block spread of virus to brain if given early The main purpose of giving the rabies vaccine post-exposure is to _________
Human-rabies Pain, tingling, and/or itching at a bite site, non-specific fever, chills, muscle aches. Progression of a high fever, agitation, and confusion. and in later stages hydrophobia are all symptoms of?
RT-PCR of saliva; or Direct Flourescence Antibody Lab diagnosis of rabies virus consists of _______ of the saliva, or using _____ _______ _______ (DFA) from a nuchal biopsy or brain biopsy
Negri bodies _____ ______ can sometimes be seen in post-mortem staining of the brain biopsy
unsuccessful and must be supportive Once symptoms of rabies virus are developed treatment is usually _______
seven Filoviruses are enveloped, helical, non-segmented, (-ve) sense RNA, with linear genomes, and encode for ______ proteins
paramyxovirus Both Filovirus and Rhabdovirus replicate similarly to ________
Ebola Hemorrhagic fever fever, headache, joint and muscle aches, sore throat, and weakness, followed by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. pinhead-sized papular exanthem and hemorrhagic macules and hemorrhaging mucous membranes are Sx of _____
no specific There is _______ antiviral therapy available for both Ebola or Marburg virus infections
Borna _______ disease causes severe, frequently fatal neurological disease in horses and sheep, and is a potential cause of human psychiatric and neurological disorder
domestic animals Borna virus can be transmitted to humans via contact with secretions and excretions from infected _______ ________ such as horses, sheep, and cats but has yet to be proven.
intra-axonally BDV migrates _____-_______ towards the CNS after early intra-neuronal replication
Preferential tropism Borna Disease Virus expresses _______ _______ for the limbic system including the hippocampus, which regulates memory, behavior, and emotions. explaining the psychiatric disorders involved
True True/False? There are no generally accepted standards for diagnosis of BDV infection.
Arenavirus; 4 _______ has a Segmented, (-ve) stranded, ambisense, linear RNA genome. with an L segment approx. 7.5kb and an S segment approx 3.5kb which encodes ___# proteins.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; house-mouse _______ also known as (LCV) is a type of Arena virus which is transmitted by the ____ ______
Lassa virus ______ virus, is endemic to West Africa, and is the causative agent of Lassa fever
Argentine Hemorrhagic fever Junin virus is a type of Arena virus which is the causative agent of ____ _____ _____ and is endemic to Argentina.
Machupo virus, Large vesper mouse Bolivian Hemorrhagic fever is caused by the ______ virus and is transmitted by the Large Vesper ______ in Bolivia.
L-segment The Z mRNA in Arenavirus is transcribed from the ____ segment of the genome
S-Segment The N mRNA and the GPC mRNA are transcribed from the ___ segment of the Arena virus genome?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Inhalation of rodent urine is common among scientists and animal caretakers, but this is also a common method of transmission of Arenavirus which can cause an illness due to ______
LCMV - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Flu-like symptoms, nausea, vomiting, and potentially meningitis and/or encepalitis and/or myelitis are symptoms that might plague a scientist leading you to think of ______
Arena virus hemorrhagic fever Dehydration, hemoconcentration, hemorrhagic shock are symptoms of _______ ______
Bolivian HF Machupo is also known as _______
Argentine HF Junin is also known as ______
Venezuelan HF Guanarito is also known as _______
Brazilian HF Sabia is also known as ______
Common house mouse A common vector for transmission of Arenavirus HF is ________
Argentine HF, and Bolivian HF Argentine HF vaccine is effective against _____
Bunyavirus genome is monomeric; segmented and consists of three segments of circular; sometimes supercoiled, (-ve) and ambisense, single-stranded RNA that forms a non-covalently closed circle (through hydrogen-bonded ends
Hantavirus Hantaan virus, and Sin nombre are both types of ______
Renal Syndrome Hemorrhagic fever with ______ ______, ARDS syndrome would indicate the patient is infected with Hantaan Virus
Pulmonary Syndrome ______ _______ accompanied by shock, and pulmonary edema would indicate an infection with Sin Nombre
Deer Mouse The common host for Sin Nombre is ____ _____
Hantaan virus This virus is commonly found in Rodents and can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Bunyavirus (CEV, LCV, Bunyawera) ________ is commonly transmitted via mosquitoes and can cause Febrile illness, encephalitis, and a rash
Golgi Apparatus Bunyaviruses replicate similar to paramyxovirus, however they bud into the ______ ______ before fusing with the outer membrane and releasing from the cell
Hantaan virus (Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) A patient presents with Fever, myalgia, rash, hypotension, oliguria, and polyuria. They explain that this illness has made it difficult for them to continue working at the research lab. you most suspect?
Fluid A patient presents with Fever, headaches, muscle aches, and has had shortness of breath recently, you suspect Sin Nombre, and would see _____ in the patients lungs upon chest x-ray
Symptoms of Encephalitis fever, headache, photophobia & vomiting, abdominal pain, sore throat, & respiratory symptoms Meningeal signs lethargy, somnolence, intellectual deficit, disorientation and coma tremors, loss of reflexes, cranial nerve palsies, hemiparesis, monoparesis
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are good indicators of a ______ _____ ______ for lab testing purposes
Aspirin and other anticoagulants The use of ______ and other ________ should be avoided when treating patients with suspected Hemorrhagic fevers
Togavirus Enveloped, icosahedral, (+ve) sense RNA, spherical capsid, with 2 or 3 glycoproteins (E1, E2, and E3) are structural characteristics of _________
mosquitos Humans are typically infected with alphaviruses via _______
location Viruses are typically named after the ________ in which they are first isolated
Nonstructural _________ proteins are encoded at the 5' end of the alphavirus gemone
E glycoprotein Attachement of the viral __ ________to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus into the host cell.
Culex Mosquito Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus is transmitted via the _____ _______ vector
15;50 Those most at rist for EEEV are under the age of ___ and over the age of ____
replication complex 2/3 of the alphavirus genome is processed by host and viral proteases to form a ______ _____
subgenomic 1/3 of alphavirus genomic RNA forms the structural polyproteins via expression through a _________ mRNA
Culex mosquito Western Equine Encephalitis Virus is transmitted via the ______ ________ vector
culex, and Aedes venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus is transmitted via 2 vectors known as the _______ and ________ mosquitos
2; M and E proteins Mature Flavivirus virions contain ____#_ virus encoded membrane proteins (___ & _____) while immature virions contain a membrane protein precursor
flaviviruses Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever, St. louis Encephalitis, Japanese Encephalitis are all types of __________
Polyadenylated The flavivirus genome is single stranded, (+) sense RNAm and has a 5' cap, but is not ________ at the 3' end. Replicates in the cytoplasm, and the nonstructural proteins are at the 5' end of the genome (opposite togavirus)
5' end of the genome and 3' end of the genome Flavivirus genome contains non-structural proteins at the ____ end of the genome and structural proteins at the ____ end of the genome
Urban, and jungle Dengue Fever Virus has two cycles _____ & _______
monkey's and mosquitos Jungle cycle of Dengue Fever is between _____ & ______
Dengue Fever Abrupt onset of fever, headache, anorexia, nausea, vomitting Retro-orbital pain Myalgia, arthralgia Bone-ache ‘breakbone fever’ are all symptoms of ______ _____
Flu, Rubella, Measles A maculopapular rash developed in a patient diagnosed with Dengue Fever, what other viral illnesses would present with a similar rash?
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Dengue Fever, can develop into a more severe illness if the patient has been exposed previously known as ____ _____ ______ which presents with more severe symptoms like Hemorrhaging, hypotension, circulatory failure, and shock.
Vasoactive mediators Dengue Hemorrhagic fever causes severe symptoms in patients who have been previously infected with a different type of Dengue virus because the infected monocytes release _____ ____ which increase vascular permeability.
Yellow Fever Virus The Aedes mosquito can transmit a virus which causes Fever, myalgia, jaundice, kidney and heart problems associated with hemorrhage and shock. Also has a CFR of 50%
Live-attenuated Yellow fever can be prevented by administering the Yellow fever vaccine which is a(n) _____ vaccine
South and Central America Yellow fever vaccine is indicated for travellers to _____ & _____
Japanese encephalitis virus Spinal Paralysis, Severe encephalitis, and a mortality rate of 25% are all symptoms of
birds St. Louis, West nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses have ____ as a reservoir which means that there is a possibility for the virus to travel a great distance
Culex West nile virus can be transmitted to humans via the ____ mosquito
Coltiviruses Colorado tick fever, Salmon river virus both have 12 segments of ds RNA and are known as ______
11 segments of ds RNA Rotavirus has __ segments of __ RNA
12 segments of ds Coltivirus has ___ segments of ___ RNA
March and November Colorado tick fever is common between ___ and ____
Colorado Tick fever Sudden fever up to 105°F (40.5°C) Chills, Headache behind the eyes, Photophobia, Muscle aches, Skin pain, Anorexia, Nausea and vomiting, Abdominal pain, General weakness and fatigue, Faint and occasional rash, are symptoms of _______
Subacute Spongiform Encephalopathies (SSEP's) or Prion diseases A group of Degenerative diseases of the CNS. Can be acquired, sporadic, or familial etiology. Present with Large vacuoles in the cortex & cerebellum in post-mortem brain. This set of disease is known as?
Prions Proteinaceous Infectious Particles which are highly resistant to procedures and agents which damage nucleic acid, but are inactivated via hypochlorite, NaOH, or autoclaving at 20psi x1 hour
Prion This is a filamentous protein particle, which contains no nucleic acid, and is composed of a single glycoprotein (PrPsc)
PrPc ; chromosome #20 ____ is a normal cell-encoded protein found on the surface of neurons. ____ is anchored into the cell membrane via glycophosphatidylinositol. ___ is also protease sensitive. The gene for ___ is located on chromosome __#
PrPsc ____ is identical to PrPc and is protease resistant. It also can aggregate into amyloid like rods, and is found in vesicles. Typically this is lost from the membrane and replaced with nre PrPc
alpha-helical PrPc is _______ (protein structure) and is soluble, PK sensitive, and does not aggregate
Beta-sheet On the contrary PrPsc has the conformational structure of ______ and is insoluble, and is Pk resistant, will aggregate and is known to be infectious.
cytoplasmic vesicles PrPsc is commonly located in _______ _______
Gut; retrograde Prions enter via ____ -> Lymphoid tissues via dendritic cells -> peripheral NS -> _____ spread to CNS
Prion disease diagnosis of ____ disease is commonly made on clinical grounds, but confirmation is had upon autopsy
Prion disease Clinical symptoms include: loss of muscle control, shivering, myoclonic jerks, tremors, loss of coordination, rapidly progressing dementia
Protein 14-3-3 The most useful CSF marker for diagnosis of CJD is protein _______#
Human prion disease Kuru, CJD, Variant CJD, Fatal Familial insomnia (FFI) and Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) are all types of _____
Animal prion disease Scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease are all types of _____
Cannibalism you can become infected with prion disease by a variety of route which include: through cuts in skin, contaminated medical instruments, transplantation, and _______ or consumption of infected animal tissues
Scrapie This is the 1st example of a prion disease, and commonly infects sheep or goats. Characterized by tremors, ataxia, and itching.
Kuru ___ disease is commonly associated with cannibalism and is typically observed 4-20 years post-exposure, characterized by tremors and ataxia. However NOT dementia
Creuztfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Clinical symptoms initially similar to psychiatric disorders with progression from forgetfulness and disorientation to dementia, changes in gait, involuntary movement and seizures.
Creuztfeldt-jakob disease Transmitted mostly by injection, transplantation (e.g., cornea, dura matter), contaminated medical devices, contaminated growth hormone; sporadic; familial; and variant forms
BSE (Bovine spongiform Encephalopathy), or mad cow disease Due to an epidemic of _____ in britain in the lat 199's there was also noted a high frequency of variant CJD in young patients which suggested a transmission of vCLD by eating infected meats
tetrapyrroles Cyclic _________ have been shown to stop abnormal folding reaction in scrapie-infected mice
RNA-dependent; DNA polymerase Retroviruses are named such because they contain a ______ dependent ____ polymerase
Non-transducing, long-latency Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) is a _______, ___ latency virus which is replication competent
Slow-progressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a ____ progressive neurological and immunosupresive disease
Lentivirus HIV, SIV, and FIV are all examples of _______
deltaretrovirus HTLV is classified as a _____retrovirus
v-Oncogene Transducing viruses encode for a ___-_______ which aids in rapid transformation of the cells, with high efficiency
c-Oncogene Non-transducing viruses encode for a __-_______ which transforms cells less rapidly that the transducing counterpart, with high to moderate efficiency
pX protein Non-transducing, long-latency viruses tansform cells very slowly with a very low level of efficiency, due to encoding for a ______ protein which has oncogenic properties
Retrovirus ________ structure involves an outer envelope derived from the plasma membrane of its host, as well as many copies of envelop proteins embedded in lipid bilayer. It also contains two molecules of ssRNA and enzyme reverse transcriptase.
gag The ____ gene encodes for MA, CA, and NC, which are proteins that makeup the matrix, capsid, and nucleocapsid respectively
pol PR, RT and IN (protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase) are all encoded for by the ____ gene of retroviruses
env the ____ gene codes for the SU (surface glycoprotein) and TM (transmembrane protein) of retroviruses
gag Protease is essential for ____ protein cleavage during the maturation of a retrovirus
capsid The ____ protein protects the cor and is the MOST ABUNDANT protein in the retrovirus particle
Surface Glycoprotein ______ ______ is in the outer envelope of retroviral glycoprotein, which is a major virus antigen
integrate Retroviral DNA will _____ with host DNA
CD4+ T-cells Human T-cell leukemia virus infect mature ____ cells
Adult T-cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) Characterized by an abnormal proliferation of mature CD4+ T-cells Develops 40 years following infection Lytic bone lesions in the skull and long bones Skin lesions due to infiltration of leukemic cells Unresponsive to aggressive chemotherapy
flower cells cells found in Adult T-cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) are often termed ________ cells
HTLV type 1 Tropical Spastic paraparesis is associated with ______ type ____
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis Leg weakness and spasticity; difficulty walking, backache, leg aches, Urinary frequency or incontinence, Women 3X more likely to develop
Tax HAM/TSP patients make antibodies against the viral protein ___ that cross react with heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein-A1 (hnRNP-A1) - expressed in neurons of the spinal cord
A1 (hnRNP-A1) HAM/TSP patients make antibodies against the viral protein Tax that cross react with heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein-___________ - expressed in neurons of the spinal cord.
Anti-HTLV antibodies; HTLV P19 antigen Three methods of diagnosing HTLV exist: direct antibody testing of ________ antibodies; Detection of HTLV ____ antigen; or detection of proviral DNA or viral RNA
aggresive chemotherapy --> Cyclophosphamide Hydroxydaunorubicin Oncovin Prednisone CHOP is an acronym used in HTLV treatment which stands for?
Heterosexuals worldwide the most common rate of HIV-transmission is between _______ at 70-75%
Blood products, Sexual intercourse, Preinatal transmission HIV can be transmitted via three major methods _______ or ______ or ______
P17 HIV capsid is made of major capsid protein ___
GP-120 ______ is present as a surface knob or attachment protein
GP-41 _______ is a transmembrane protein important for fusion
CCR5 HIV infection is initiated by virus using _______ also known as M-tropism
CXCR4 strains that can infect _______ cells emerge in the course of infection. Also known as T-tropism
CD4 _______: receptor of HIV (necessary but not sufficient for HIV infection)
CCR5 and CXCR4 ______ & _______ (chemokine receptors) are the co-receptors of HIV
three infection by HIV produces _____ phases of disease
Early phase ______ phase of HIV is characterized by rapid viral replication and flu-like symptoms with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, myalgia and occasionally a rash
Middle phase The _____ phase of HIV infection has few symptoms, and a powerful immune response can reduce the number of viral particles in the blood stream
Late phase; opportunistic the _____ phase of HIV shows a sharp decline in number of CD4+ T-cells to approx 400/ul. CMI is lost, and _________ infections begin to appear
200/ul; AIDS When the CD4 count of an HIV patient drops below ____/ul the disease is categorized as ______ and cancer, and dementia may develop as a result
Error prone Reverse transcriptase (up to 10 mutations/cycle) HIV-1 and HIV-2 have high genetic variability due to _____
Anti-HIV antibodies Detection of _____ is the most widely used and most effective method for identifying HIV infection
gp41+ gp120/160 or p24 + gp120/160 A positive antibody test for HIV would require the detection of _____ +_____ /____ or _____ +_____/_____
>98% Combined ELISA + WB for HIV show sensitivity and specificity of _____ but positive results should always be confirmed with further testing
Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy Treatment for HIV usually consists of ______ ____ ____ _____ _____ or (HAART) combined therapy usually uses three drugs, two which target reverse transcriptase, and one that targets viral protease
Nucleoside analogs (RT inhibitors) Azidothymidine (AZT) or Zidovudine (ZDV) are examples of
protease inhibitors These drugs block viral protease in retroviruses so that the proteins cannot be cleaved for further assembly of the virus
Fusion inhibitors These inhibit the allosteric change that enables gp41 to penetrate the host plasma membrane.
Problems of triple drug therapy Cannot clear the virus from an infected individuals Cannot stop taking the drugs because of the reservoirs of the virus Drugs resistance virus appear Drugs are expensive are all examples of: _______ ______ ______
Oral lesions _____ _____ are common among AIDS patients as their CD4 t-cell counts decline
Kaposi's Sarcoma Patients with AIDS/HIV are prone to developing this specific type of carcinoma _______ ______
Created by: Vivaxid