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Circulatory System

TermDefinition
Action Potentials Originate in the SA node and travel across the walls of the atrium to the AV node
Agglutination Clumping of particles which results when incompatible blood types are mixed within the body and the antibodies of one blood type react against the antigens of the other
Aneurysm Bulge or ballooning in the wall of an artery
Antibodies In the blood plasma which determine blood type
Antigens Located on the surface of the red blood cells which determine blood type
Aorta Main blood vein leading to the heart
Aortic Semilunar Valve Opens to allow oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta
Arteries Strong elastic vessels designed to carry blood away from the heart at a high pressure
Arterioles Smaller
Arteriosclerosis Normal consequence of aging where the arterial walls gradually thicken and arterial fibers decline occurring commonly in the arteries in the brain
Atherosclerosis Disease affecting arterial blood vessels by the buildup of plaque on the inner lining of the arteries causing them to narrow and be less flexible
Atria Responsible for receiving blood from the veins leading to the heart
Atrioventricular Bundle Bundle of nodes
AV Node Located in the walls of the right atrium
Basophil Releases histamine which promotes inflammation and heparin
Bicuspid (mitral) Valve Lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle
Blood Pressure Force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels
Blood Types Categories which define the differences in human blood due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies
Blood Vessels Hollow utensils for carrying blood
Blood Contained in blood vessels and consists of red blood cells
Capillaries Important for the exchange of oxygen
Cardiac Cycle Repeating pumping process of the heart
Circulatory System Transports food
Coronary Artery Disease Occurs when the arteries which supply blood to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis
Diastole First step in the two-step heart beat process
Endocardium Inner lining of the heart
Eosinophil Releases chemicals which reduce inflammation and attack parasites
Epicardium Outer surface of the heart
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Large microscopic cells without a nucleus which transport oxygen from the lungs to all of the living tissues of the body and carry away carbon dioxide
Erythropoiesis Process by which red blood cells are made
Four Pulmonary Veins Carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Heart Attack Death of heart muscle from the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot
Heart Muscular pump surrounded by a double layered closed sac made of fibrous connective tissue call the pericardium
Hemoglobin Composed of a protein called heme
Homeostasis State of balance or equilibrium between all systems and processes within the body
Hypertension Considered to be present when a person's systolic blood pressure is consistently 140mmHg or greater
Inferior Vena Cava Carry blood from the body to the right atrium
Infusion Introduction of a fluid other than blood to the body such as saline or glucose solution
Ions (electrolytes) Involved in osmosis
Leukocytes (white blood cells) Protect the body against invading organisms and remove dead cells and other waste from the body
Lymphocyte Produces antibodies to aid in the immune response
Monocyte Leaves blood and becomes a macrophage which eats bacteria
Murmurs Abnormal heart sounds resulting from narrowing or leaking of valves or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart
Myocardium Muscle of the heart
Neutrophil Eat microorganisms and other substances
Nutrients Sources of energy which promote enzyme activity
Plaque Fatty material on the inner lining of the arteries causing them to narrow and be less flexible
Plasma Proteins Aid in blood pressure
Plasma Is the liquid component of blood in which the blood cells are suspended
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries
Pulmonary Trunk Carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Purkinje Fibers Carry the action potentials from the bundle branches to the ventricular walls causing the heart to contract
Regulatory Substances Stimulate or inhibit body functions
Rh Grouping System Involves the presence or absence of the Rh factor
SA Node Located in the walls of the right atrium which acts like the pacemaker
Stroke Sudden death of brain cells due to a problem with the blood supply caused by a blockage or the rupture of an artery
Superior Vena Cava Carry blood from the body to the right atrium
Systole Second step in the heart-beat process
Thrombocytes (platelets) Play an important role in preventing blood loss
Transfusion Transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another
Tricuspid Valve Regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle
Type A Has A antigens on the surface of the red blood cells and B antibodies in the blood plasma
Type AB Has both A and B antigens on the surface of the red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in the blood plasma
Type B Has B antigens on the surface of the red blood cells and A antibodies in the blood plasma
Type O Has neither A or B antigens on the surface of the red blood cells but has both A and B antibodies in the blood plasma
Veins Carry low-oxygen blood from the tissues back to the heart; except for the pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood
Ventricles Force the blood away from the heart with sufficient power to push the blood all the way back to the heart
Water Acts as a solvent and suspending medium
Created by: nduke2