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Ch. 6 Muscles

Ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
Capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
The ability to be stretched elasticity
Skeletal muscle is surrounded by this connective tissue sheath epimysium
Connective tissue located outside the epimysium that surrounds and separates muscles fascia
Loose connective tissue that surrounds the visible bundles in muscle perimysium
Visible bundles in muscle fasciculi
Single muscle cells fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called this endomysium
Cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with this myofibrils
2 major protein fibers actin & myosin
Actin thin
Myosin thick
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called sarcomeres
Sarcomeres join together to form the Myofibril
Basic structural and functional unity of the muscle sarcomere
Each sarcomere extends from what to what? Z line to Z line
Zline actin
What gives the "banded" appearance? the arrangement of actin and myosin
Space on each side of the Z line i band
i band actin, light
extends the length of the myosin A band
A band Dark, myosin
H zone located in the center of each sarcomere, light area
M line Myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at the m line
Charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
Brief reversal back of the charge action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms a neuromuscular junction or synapse
Single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called motor unit
many of these form a single muscle motor unit
formed by a enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane neuromuscular junction
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
space between the the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscle fiber postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete this neurotransmitter acetylcholine
breaks down acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase
muscle contraction occurs when... actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten
when sarcomeres shorten it... causes the muscle to shorten
sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contractions sliding filament mechanism
sliding filament mechanism h & I bands shorten.
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle
threshold level that a muscle fiber will respond to a stimulus
this is called the all or none affect threshold
lag phase time between application and occurrence of a contraction
contraction phase actual time of contraction
relaxation phase time of relaxation between contractions
tetany muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
atp energy needed for muscle contractions
atp produced in the mitochondria
atp shortlived and unstable
atp cannot be stockpiled
ADP adenosine diphosphate
creatine phosphate can be stored
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
which is more efficient aerobic
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed to replenish
muscle fatigue atp is used faster than it can be made
isometric length does not change
isotonic length of muscle changes
muscle tone constant tension
fast twitch wears down easily
slow twitch can go for a long time
origin head
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
some muscles have multiple origins or head true
synergists muscles that work together to complete a specific task
antagonists muscles that work against eachother
prime mover main muscle used in any one specific movement
most muscles have names that are descriptive true
dark bands A bands
Created by: brooke_perry14



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