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NAU A&P 13 & 14

NAU Endocrine System, Blood

In Latin, means "acorn" Glands
Types of glands according to their secretions destinations Endocrine and Exocrine Glands
External glands, secrete products to exit the cell or body OR go into the lumen of another organ. Exocrine Glands
Internal glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to reach target cells. These glands and their hormones help regulate how the body works-its metabolism Endocrine Glands
Chemical messengers that literally " to arouse, to set into motion, or urge on" Hormones
2 classes of hormones Non-steroids and Steroids
Non-steroid classifications Amines, Protein, Glycoproteins, Peptides and Prostaglandins
Steroid classifications Sex hormones and Adrenal cortex secretions
Derived from the amino acid tyrosine-epinephrine and norepinephrine OR adrenaline or noradrenaline Amines
Composed of long chains of amino acids. PTH-parathyroid, GH-Growth Hormone and PRL-prolactin Protein
Proteins joined to carbohydrates. FSH-Folicle stimulating , LH- Lutenizing and TSH- Thyroid stimulating Hormones, all found in anterior portion of pituitary gland. Glycoproteins
Short chains of amino acids. ADH-Antidiuretic, OT-Oxytocin, TRH-Thyroptin releasing, SS- Somatostantin and GnRH-Gonadotropin releasing Peptides
Fatty acids produced in a wide variety of cells all over the body. Prostaglandins
Amino acid compounds that do NOT dissolve in lipids Non-Steroidal Hormones
Lipid based derived from cholesterol that dissolves in lipids. Steroids
The cells that the hormones will be acting upon. Target cells
Sequence of Non-Steroidal Hormone Using Cyclic AMP Steps 1-3 1. Endocrine gland secretes hormone 2. Body fluid carries hormone to its target cell. 3. Hormone combines w/ receptor site on membrane of its target cell, activating G protein (messenger)
Sequence of Non-Steroidal Hormone Using Cyclic AMP Steps 4-6 4. G protein then activates adenylate cyclase (integral protein) with its active site facing inside the cell. 5. Adenylate cyclase functions to remove the 2 phosphate groups from ATP converting it into cyclic AMP 6. Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases
Sequence of Non-Steroidal Hormone Using Cyclic AMP Steps 7-8 7. These enzymes collectively change the metabolic processes within the cell. 8. Resulting in the hormone's effects (ie secretion of product)
Sequence of Steroid Hormone Action. Steps 1-3 1. Endocrine gland secretes steroid hormone to be carried via blood to target cell. 2. Steroid hormone diffuses through the target cell membrane & enters cytoplasm or nucleus 3. Hormone combines w/a receptor site molecule in the cytoplasm or nucleus.
Sequence of Steroid Hormone Action. Steps 4-6 4. Steroid hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA & promotes transcription of messenger RNA. 5. Messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm & directs protein synthesis. 6. Newly synthesized proteins produce hormone's specific effects.
The control source that brings conditions back to normal, effectors gradually reduce until they shut down Negative Feedback
Negative Feedback Steps 1. Hormonal Stimulus 2. Neutral Stimulus 3. Humoral Stimulus
RH (Releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus releases hormones from the anterior portion of the pituitary gland (trophic-"nourishment" hormones) In this case. Nourishment = Stimulation Hormonal Stimulus
Trophic also known as Stimulate to release
Nervous system directly stimulates some glands. Ex: Adrenal Medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine OR adrenaline and noradrenaline Neutral Stimulus
High blood levels of a given hormone (or its predecessors or products) serve to "turn off" or inhibit further section of that hormone. Humoral Stimulus
Means blood Humoral
Endocrine Glands 1. Pituitary 2. Thyroid 3. Parathyroids 4. Adrenal Medulla 5. Adrenal Cortex 6. Pancreatic Islets 7. Pineal Gland
2 Lobes of the Pituitary Gland Anterior Lobe and Posterior Lobe
Hormones of the Anterior lobe of the Pituitary Gland GH-Growth Hormone, FSH-Follicle Stimulating Hormone, PRL-Prolactin, LH-Luteinizing hormone and ICSH- Reproductive Hormones, TSH- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Hormones that contains FSH and LH ICSH
Hormones of the Posterior lobe of the Pituitary Gland ADH-Antidiuretic hormone and Oxycytocin
Master gland, effects other glands Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis
Lobe in which hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and stored here Posterior Lobe
Frontal lobe of pituitary gland Anterior Lobe
Is H-shaped, located in the throat, regulates calcium in the bone Thyroid
4 tiny little glands on the thyroid gland, shaped like top hats. Parathyroids
Hormones in the inner portion of the gland, located on top of the kidneys Adrenal Medulla
Makes up the bulk of the adrenal gland, located on the kidneys Adrenal Cortex
Where the endocrine hormones of the pancreas are locatd Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans
Melatonin hormone details Found in Pineal gland, involved with bio-rhythms, deals with mood swings, sexual desires and sleep cycles
Tropical hormones details Found in hypothalamus, regulates other hormones and id not regulated by anything
Oxytocin hormone details Found in posterior portion of the pituitary gland, Provides uterus contractions and milk "let down". Regulated by hypothalamus in response to uterine stretching & suckling
ADH- Antidiuretic hormone details Is a peptide and non-steroidal. Found in posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, Gives water retention and constriction of the blood vessels. Regulated by hypothalamus to balance water and salt
Antidiuretic is also known as Vasopressin
GH-Growth hormone details Is a protein, non-steroidal, found in anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, involves growth, regulated by the Hypothalamus
PRL-Prolactin hormone details Found in anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, stimulates milk production and is regulated by the hypothalamus
FSH- Follicle stimulating hormone details Found in anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, causes female to release egg, production of sperm and ova. Regulated by the hypothalamus
LH- Lutenizing hormone details Is a glycoprotein, non-steroidal. Found in anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Stimulates testes for sperm reproduction, and ovaries. Found in hypothalamus.
TSH-Thyroid stimulating hormone details Found in anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Stimulates thyroid. Regulated by the hypothalamus and thyroxine.
ACTH- Adrenocorticotropic hormone details Found in anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids. Regulated by hypothalamus and Glucocorticoids
T4- Thyroxine and T3-Triiodothyronine hormone details Found in thyroid. Stimulates metabolism by increasing physical and mental activities. Regulated by TSH- Thyroid stimulating hormone
Calcitonin or Thyrocalcitonin hormone details Found in thyroid. Reduces blood calcium levels. Regulated by calcium in blood.
PTH-Parathyroid hormone details Found in parathyroid. Raises blood calcium levels Regulated by calcium in blood.
Thymosin hormone details Found in thymus. Programs "T" lymphocyctes. Unknown regulation
Is located behind sternum and in front of the heart. Is active childhood for metabolism and only lymphatic activities as an adult Thymus
Makes up Adrenal hormones Adrenal Medulla and Adrenal Cortex
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine OR Adrenaline and noradrenaline hormone details Found in Adrenal Medulla. Raises blood glucose , increases rate of metabolism, constricts certain blood vessels. Regulated by sympathetic division of nervous system.
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine OR Adrenaline and noradrenaline are also called Catecholamines
Glucocorticoids hormone details Found in adrenal cortex. Raises blood glucose. Regulated by ACTH- Adrenocortico-Tropic
Metabolizes sugar Gluococorticoids
Mineralocorticoids or Aldoesterone hormone details Found in adrenal cortex. Promotes reabsorption of Sodium and Potassium in kidneys. Regulated by changes in blood volume or pressure; the sodium and potassium levels in blood
Sex hormones Found in adrenal cortex.
Insulin hormone details Beta cells. Found in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans. Reduces blood glucose. Regulated by glucose levels in blood.
Glucagon hormone details Alpha cells. Found in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans. Raises blood glucose. Regulated by glucose levels in blood.
Somatostatin hormone details Delta cells. Found in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans. Inhibits secretion of Glucagons and insulin. Unknown regulation.
Androgen hormone details Found in Gonads and testes. Stimulates sexual maturation. Regulated by FSH and LH.
Estrogen hormone details Found in ovaries. Stimulates sexual maturation. Regulated by FSH and LH
Progesterone hormone details Found in ovaries. Promotes growth of uterine lining. Regulated by FSH and LH.
2 types of Stress Physical and physiological stress
Threatens tissues directly, anything that affects us physically, sick or hurt Physical stress
Results from thoughts about real or imagined dangers, personal losses, unpleasant social interactions or the lack thereof or any threatening factors. Psychological Stress
Functions of the blood 1-5 1. Gas transport 2.Nutrient, electrolyte & vitamin transport to cells 3. Waste transport from cells 4. Hormone transport from production site to target 5. Keep body pH balanced
Functions of the blood 6-9 6. Regulates tissue fluid 7. Heat transportation 8. Carries cells & antibodies to fight infection 9. Carries binding proteins that prevent coagulation
2 divisions of blood Plasma and formed elements
Straw or yellowish color of the fluid portion of the circulating blood Plasma
Blood consists of: Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma
Plasma consists of: Albumin, Clotting Factors, Antibodies and Compliment
Protein responsible for for maintaining the osmotic pressure in the blood, produced in the liver. Albumin
Aids in coagulation and is produced in the liver Clotting factors
Fights infections, produced by certain white blood cells Antibodies
A group of enzymes that aid antibodies in their fight against infection. Complement
Makes up formed elements: Erythrocytes or Red blood cells; Leukocytes or White blood cells and Platelets
Red cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Lives for 90 days. Red blood cells or Erythrocytes
White cells that protect against infection. White blood cells or Leukocytes
Diseases caused by an overgrowth of white blood cells or leukocytes. Lupus or leukemia
2 categories of Leukocyctes Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
White blood cells that have a granular cytoplasm Granulocytes
White blood cells that have a nongranular cytoplasm Agranulocytes
Types of granulocytes Neutophils, Eosinophils and Basophils
Fine cytoplasmic granules, has a lobed nucleus, is lavender colored, first to arrive at the site of an infection. Neutophils
Pink or red colored, has course cytoplasmic granules, moderates allergic reactions and defends against parasitic worm infestations. Eosinophils
Deep blue colored, fewer irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules, releases histamine, which promotes inflammation and heparin, which inhibits blood clotting, thus increasing blood flow to injured tissues. Basophils
Types of agranulocytes Monocytes and Lymphocytes
Largest blood cells, leaves the bloodstream to become macrophages that phagotizes bacteria, dead cells and other debris in tissues. Monocytes
Slightly larger than erythrocytes, T-cells and B-cells, both important in immunity. Lymphocytes
Directly attacks microorganisms, tumor cells and transported cells T cells
Produces antibodies which are proteins that attack foreign molecules. B cells
Cell fragments that participate in blood clotting, cells do not have nuclei or DNA. Thrombocytes or platelets
Hemostaisis- Blood stoppage may occur by ways 1-2 1. Blood vessel spasm-vasospasm-vasoconstriction 2.Platelet plug formation- utilizing platelets & collagen fibers.
Hemostaisis- Blood stoppage may occur by ways 3-4 3. Extrinsic clotting- blood contacts damaged vessel walls or tissues outside blood vessels. 4. Intrinsic clotting mechanism- when blood comes into contact with something other than smooth epithelial tissue initiating clotting from inside the vessel.
Ways to prevent clotting or coagulation: 1. Smooth lining of blood vessel 2. Postscyclin 3. Fibrin threads 4. Antithrombin in fibers 5. Heparin
Prevents clotting by inhibiting platelets from attaching to blood vessel walls Postacyclin
Prevents clotting by absorbing thrombin Fibrin thread
Prevents clotting by interfering with thrombin action Antithrombin in plasma
Prevents clotting by cells being located predominately in the liver and lungs, interferes with the formation of prothrombin activator. Heparin
Indicates the type of antigen or marker located on the surface of a Red blood celles A, B, AB, O
Is a universal donor, lack A and B antigens O
Is the universal acceptor AB
Steps 1-4 of the life cycle of a red blood cell 1. Hemoatopoiesis-formation begins in the epiphysis of bone. 2. Hemocytoblasts stem cells-origin of all formed cells. 3. Myeloid cell formation- gives rise to reticulocytes 4. Reticulocytes unable to synthesize proteins, grow or divide.
Steps 5-7 of the life cycle of a red blood cell 5. Rbc's age, becoming rigid, & begin to fragment & fall apart 6. Damaged or worn out rbc's rupture when passing through liver or spleen. 7. Macrophages phagotizes units, sending bilirubin & heme to liver to recycle as platelets.
Step 8 of the life cycle of a red blood cell 8. Negative feedback is controlled by erythropoietin in response to oxygen levels. If enough cells are destroyed, oxygen levels will drop and the hormone will stimulate hematopoiesis to begin again.
Created by: FKrouse