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Bisaya Grammar 1

Grammar Rules and Patterns

Grammar Rule/PatternDefinitionExample
Anaa or Naa + 'y + noun Pattern : I, II, III there is, have there was, had I have a pencil. Naa ako'y lapis. There is a pencil. Naa'y lapis.
Aduna or Duna + 'y + noun Pattern : I, II, III there is, have there was, had He has a pencil. Duna ka'y lapis. There is a pencil. Duna'y lapis.
Kinsa + 3rd Class (plural) + ang... Which of you (plural) Who among you (plural) Which of them has the pencil? Kinsa sa ila ang naa'y lapis
Riding Verbs: Mag+vehicle+pronoun/noun+paingon... We will ride a bus going to Cagayan. Magbus kami paingon sa Cagayan.
Locative Words: Nia Here Your parents are here. Nia ang imong mga ginikanan.
Locative Words: Naa There (near) They are in the States. Tua sila sa Esteyts.
Locative Words: Tua There (far) Your keys are on the table. Naa sa lamesa ang imong mga yabi.
If there are 2 verbs in a sentence: 1st Verb = Main Verb 2nd Verb = Gerund (needs pag prefix)
Bag-o lang always takes the past form of the verb "just" recently completed action They just arrived. Bag-o lang sila niabot.
Naa + 3rd class + 1st Class There is presence, existence or location of a specific object. The pencil is with her. Naa sa iya ang lapis.
Ka-number linker Links the number to the item 5 pencils Lima ka mga lapis
Kanus-a Anus-a When When is the party? Kanus-a ang parti?
Kaayo Very, so, extremely This is very delicious. Lami kini kaayo.
Nga linker or ligature following consonant - nga following vowels - ng following n - g Beautiful girl - Gwapa nga babae Gwapang babae
Pagka +Adj +2nd Class Adjective Intensifier "How" How beautiful she is! Pagkagwapa niya
Ka +Adj +2nd Class Adjective Intensifier "How" How hard the lesson is! Kalisud sa leksyon!
Adj +a + 2nd Class Adjective Intensifier "How" How short that child is! Mubo a nianang bata!
Unsa + 'y + LANGUAGE + sa + word Use to elicit words or phrases in a Language What is 'pencil' in Cebuano? Unsa'y Sibuhano sa pencil?
Unsa + sa + LANGUAGE + ang + word Use to elicit words or phrases in a Language What is 'pencil' is Cebuano? Unsa sa Sibuhano ang pencil?
Object Focus: II, I, III Gi- , -on , -a I bought the pencil for her. Gipalit nako ang lapis para sa iya.
Hain full word which/where Which is your house? Hain ang imong balay?
Morag + full word + particles + pronoun/noun... Seems like / looks like She seems right. Morag saktu siya.
Tagpila + ang + noun How much is each How much each are the pencils? Tagpila ang lapis?
Actor Focus: ni/nag + verb + I + actor + II + obj + III + bdl mo/mag + verb + I + actor + II + obj + III + bdl r/pag + verb + I + actor + II + obj + III + bdl Actor focus refers to the relationship that exists between the verb and the topic of the sentence. We will buy bread for her at the bakery. Mopalit ko og pan para sa iya sa bakery.
Wala + future (mo/mag) Wala + past (ni/nag To negate past/present She didn't come to the party. Wala siya nianhi sa parti.
Dili + future (mo/mag) To negate future The teacher will not teach today. Dili motudlo ang maestra karong adlawa.
Gusto: I, II ; II, II ; II, I Person - I, III ; II, I Want like She loves chocolate. Gusto siya og tsokolet. He likes her. Gusto niya siya.
Pila + 1st class + object How much How much is the apple? Pila ang mansanas?
Pila + ka +object How many How many apples? Pila ka mansanas?
Ngano, Ngano man, Nganong (NOT FULL WORD!) Why? Why will they borrow our car? Nganong hulamon nila ang atong awto?
Comparison: Mas + Adj + 1st Class + Kay (sa) + 3rd Class She is taller than her. Mas taas siya kay sa iya.
Negate Comparison: Dili +(kini) + mas+ adj + kay (sa) + 3rd Class She is not taller than her. Dili siya mass taas kay sa iya.
Kang Kinsa Whose, to whom, for whom Whose is this? Kang kinsa kini?
Kang Kinsa w/ Verb Who will they buy it from? Kang kinsa sila mopalit niana?
Ig-unsa + 2nd class + 1st class How is (2nd class) related to (1st class)? What is (1st class) to (2nd class)? How is he related to them? Ig-unsa nila siya?
Asa Where Where is she? Asa siya?
Asa + verb Where will they buy? Asa sila mopalit?
Kinsa Who Who are you? Kinsa ka?
Kinsa + verb Who taught the children? Kinsa ang nagtudlo sa mga bata?
Unsa+ng+time+a Unsang orasa/ tuiga/ bulana What time/ year/month What time will we go to school? Unsang orasa kita moadto sa eskwelahan?
Kumusta +pronoun/noun How - asking for the state or condition of something or someone How is she? Kumusta siya?
Emphasis w/ verbs Pronoun/noun + ang + verb.... I will be the one to buy bread. Ako ang mopalit og pan.
Adverb + nga + future form of verb (Kanunay, Permi, Sigi, Pwede, Gusto, Kinahanglang, Usahay, Panagsa, Makamao, Mahimo)
Equational Sentence Adj + noun We always begin the sentence with the descriptive word. Then the noun or pronoun follows. He is tall. Taas siya.
Negator with equational sentence. Dili + pronoun/noun + adjective He is not tall. Dili siya taas.
Wala + 'y + noun Don't have/ doesn't have I don't have a pencil. Wala ako'y lapis.
Created by: jrathbun