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CSD- Blood

Composition of Blood- Function of Erythrocytes

Total Blood Volume 5.5-5.6 L
Plasma part of blood 3-4 L
% of Plasma that is Water 91-93%
% of Plasma that is Proteins 7-9%
Functions of Blood Carry oxygen Acid Base Buffer System Inflammation and Immune mechanisms Hemostasis Homeostasis
Plasma proteins Albumin, Globulins, Fibrinogen
Alpha and Beta Globulins Produced by the liver, important in vitamin transport
Gamma Globulins Produced by lymphocytes and function in immunity
Affect of decreaed Albumins Edema (complication in pt's with liver or kidney disease
Fibrinogen Precursor to fibrin which is important in blodd clotting
Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell Cell from which all blood cells are derived
Two major blood cell lineages Myeloid and Lymphoid
Myeloid Precursor Cells turn into: Proerythroblasts, Polymorphalnuclear cells, and mgakaryocytes
Proerythroblasts become Red Blood Cells
Polymophalnuclear cells become Granulocytes
Granulocytes become *Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
Monocyte fate travel through the ciruculation to become a macrophage
Lymphoid cells become T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
Hemoglobin can bind oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions
Where carbonic anhydrase is stored Red Blood Cells
What happens to concentration of hemoglobin as RBC develops decreases
What happens to organelles and nuclues of hemoglobin as RBC develops oganelles are lost and nucleus condenses
What an RBC is called before it leaves the bone marrow Reticulocyte
Final shape of an RBC Biconcave disc
Avg. lifespan of RBC 120 days
RBC's ability to produce ATP and metabolize glucose limited
Effects of too many RBCs increase in blood viscosity and impedes blood flow
Major RBC production hormone erythropoietin
Site of erythropoietin production kidney
Factors that cause increased secretion of erythropoietin anemia, altitude, hemorrage, circulatory disease, cardiac failure, pulmonary disease
time between erythropoeitin release and increase in RBCs 5 days
Essential nutritional elements for production of RBCs Vitamin B12 and folic acid
Effect of inadequate folic acid and vitamin B12 maturation failure of RBCs
Common cause of vit. B12 deficiency lack of intrinisc factor secreted from stomach cells
storage of B12 in liver 3-4 years worth
Element required for Hgb synthsis Iron
Number of chains on one Hgb molecule 4
Number of O one heme can cary 1
Number of O atoms that can be carried by 1 Hgb 8
Number of molecular O that can be carried on 1 Hgb 4 (O2)
Things that cause Hgb to release O2 Increase in H+ Increase in CO2 Increase in temp Increase in 2,3 DPG
Where most of the daily requirements for iron come from recycling RBCs
Iron is stored in the liver as ferritin
Excess iron is stored as hemosiderin (which can be toxic)
Once ingested iron is absorbed into the circulation and bings with apotransferrin
Major site for destruction of old, fragile RBCs Spleen
Fate of release Hgb from dead RBCs phagocytosed by macrophages and returned to the liver for storage or transportaed to teh bone marrow for projuction of new Hgb
Fate of other breakdown products of RBC converted to billirubin
Cause for jaundice inceased hemolysis
Important rxn for blood acid-base balance H20 + CO2 <---carbonic anhydrase---> H+ +HCO3-
Anemia deficiency of Hgb which can be due to either a decreased total number of RBCs or due to a dereased amount of Hgb/RBC
Results of anemia -Inadequate transport of O2 to the tissues -Greater workload on the heart
Common signs and symptoms of anemia -Dyspnea (SOB) -Tachycardia -Palpitations -Decreased exercise tolerance
Polycythemia Condition in which there are too many RBCs, results in an increase in the viscosity of the blood and therefore sluggish bloodflow
Secondary polycythemia occurs in situations whenever there is too little oxygen delivery to the tissues, common causes are altitude and cardiac failure
Hematocrit varies with gender and age
Avg. hematocrit for males 42-52% (avg 45%)
Avg. hematocrit for females 37-47% (avg 42%)
Hematocrit values and guidelines for exercise < 25% = no exercise 25-29% = light exercise 30% = add resistance as tolerated
Normal hemoglobin levels for females 14 g/dL
Normal hemoglobin levels for males 16 g/dL
Hemoglobin levels and exercise guidelines < 8 g/dL = no exercise 8-10 g/dL = light exercise > 10 g/dL = add resistance as tolerated
Created by: aglade