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Head & Neck ana Ch.2

Dr. Alkoury's class

QuestionAnswer
What do the regions of the head include frontal, parietal and occipital, temporal, orbital, nasal, infraorbital, zygomatic, and buccal, oral, and mental regions.
What does the frontal region include? the forehead, and the area superior to the eyes
Where is the Supraorbital ridge located? inferior to each eyebrow. It is more prominent in adult males.
Describe the Glabella the smooth elevated area between the eyebrows, which tends to be flat in children and adult females. It has a rounded prominence in adult males
What does the scalp consist of? it consists of layers of soft tissue overlying the bones of the braincase.
What is the most prominent structure of the Temporal region the external ear, which is composed of an auricle (oval flap of the ear), and the external acoustic meatus.
What structures are the external ear composed of? it is composed of an auricle and the external acoustic meatus.
The is the function of the auricle? it collects sound waves.
What is the external acoustic meatus? it is a tube through which sound waves are transmitted to the middle ear within the skull.
What is the helix? it is the superior and posterior free margin of the auricle, which ends inferiorly at the lobule.
What is the lobule? it is the fleshy protuberance of the earlobe.
What is the Tragus? The portion of the auricle anterior to the external acoustic meatus and is a smaller flap of tissue. It is flexible
What is the Antitragus? The other flap of tissue opposite the tragus
What is the Intertragic notch? it is a deep notch located between the tragus and antitragus.
Why are the external acoustic meatus and tragus important landmarks? to use when taking extra oral radiographs and performing local anesthesia on a patient.
What structures make up the Orbital region? the eyeball and all its supporting structures, which are contained in the bony socket called the orbit.
What is the orbit? the bony socket of the oribital region.
What is the Sclera? the white area of the eyeball.
What is the iris? it is the central area of coloration.
What is the pupil? it is the opening in the center of the iris, which appears black, and changes size as the iris responds to changing light conditions
Describe the function and location of the eyelids they are movable and are located on the upper and lower areas and function to cover and protect each eyeball.
Describe the location and function of the Lacrimal gland? it is located behind each upper eyelid and within the orbit. It produces lacrimal fluid or tears. 7-12 ducts
What is the Conjunctiva? it is the delicate and thin membrane lining the inside of the eyelids and the front of the eyeball.
What is the Lateral canthus? it is the outer corner where the upper and lower eyelids meet…AKA outer canthus.
What is the Medial canthus? it is the inner angle of the eye
Why are the canthi important landmarks? to use when taking extra oral radiographs.
What is the main feature of the Nasal Region? its main feature is the external nose.
Where is the root of the nose located? it is located between the eyes.
Describe the location of the Nasion it is inferior to the glabella it is a midpoint landmark of the nasal region that corresponds with the junction between the underlying bones.
Buccal structures closest to the inner cheek
Facial structures closest to the facial surface
Golden guidelines used to consider the facial view of the anterior teeth or the vertical dimensions of the face to create a pleasing proportion
Labial structures closest to the lips
Lingual structures closest to the tongue
Palatal structures closest to the palate
Vertical Dimension of the Face the face divided into thirds
Glabella the smooth, elevated area between the eyebrows in the frontal region
Tragus flap of tissue that is a portion of the auricle and anterior to the external acoustic meatus
Mucogingival junction border between the alveolar mucosa and attached gingiva
Sternocleidomastoid Muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior cervical triangles
Supraorbital Ridge located inferior to each eyebrow; more prominent in adult males
Frontal Eminence the prominence of the forehead
Scalp consists of layers of soft tissue overlying the bones of the braincase
Auricle oval flap of the external ear that collects sound waves
External Acoustic Meatus a tube through which sound waves are transmitted to the middle ear within the skull
Helix the superior and posterior free margin of the auricle
Lobule inferior fleshy protuberance from the helix of the auricle
Antitragus flap of tissue opposite the tragus
Intertragic Notch deep notch between the tragus and antitragus on the surface of the ear
Orbital Region region of the head that includes the eyeball and all its supporting structures, which are contained within the orbit
Sclera the white area of the eyeball
Iris the central area of coloration of the eyeball
Pupil the opening in the center of the iris, which appears black, and changes size as the iris responds to changing light conditions
Lacrimal Gland structure located behind each upper eyelid and within the orbit that produces lacrimal fluid or tears
Conjunctiva the delicate and thin membrane lining the inside of the eyelids and the front of the eyeball
Lateral Canthus the outer corner where the upper and lower eyelids meet
Medial Canthus the inner angle of the eye
Root of the Nose area of the nasal region between the eyes
Nasion midline junction between the nasal and frontal bones
Bridge of the Nose bony structure inferior to the nasion in the nasal region
Apex of the Nose tip of the nose, formed from cartilage
Naris (Nares) nostril of the nose
Nasal Septum vertical partition of the nasal cavity
Ala of the Nose winglike cartilaginous structures that laterally bound the nares
Infraorbital Region region of the head that is located below the orbital region and lateral to the nasal region
Zygomatic Region region of the head that overlies the cheek bone
Zygomatic Arch arch formed by the union of the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of the temporal bone
Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) articulation between the temporal bone and mandible that allows for movement of the mandible
Buccal Region region of the head that is composed of the soft tissues of the cheek of the face
Masseter Muscle one of the strong muscles located in the cheek which can be felt when a patient clenches the teeth together
Angle of the Mandible the sharp angle of the lower jaw inferior to the ear's lobule
Oral Region region of the head that contains the lips, oral cavity, palate, tongue and floor of the mouth and portions of the pharynx
Vermillion Zone darker appearance of the lips
Vermillion Border outline of the entire lip from the surrounding skin
Philtrum vertical groove in the midline of the upper lip that extends downward from the nasal septum
Labial Commissure corner of the mouth where the upper and lower lips meet
Nasolabial Sulcus the groove running upward between the labial commissure and the ala of the nose
Labiomental Groove a groove that separates the lower lip from the chin
Mucosa mucous membrane such as that lining the oral cavity
Labial Mucosa lining of the inner portions of the lips
Buccal Mucosa mucosa that lines the inner cheek
Buccal Flat Pad dense pad of tissue covered by the buccal mucosa
Parotid Papilla small elevation of tissue that marks the opening of the parotid salivary glad and is located opposite the second maxillary molar on the inner cheek
Maxillary Tuberosity elevation on the posterior aspect of the maxilla that is perforated by the posterior superior alveolar foramina
Alveolar Mucosa mucosa that lines the vestibules of the oral region
Mucobuccal fold fold in the vestibule where the labial or buccal mucosa meets the alveolar mucosa
Labial Frenum fold of tissue or frenulum located at the midline between the labial mucosa and alveolar mucosa of the maxilla and mandible
Mucogingival Junction border between the alveolar mucosa and attached gingiva
Palate roof of the mouth
Hard Palate anterior portion of the palate formed by the palatine processes of the maxilla and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones
Median Palatine Raphe Midline suture between the palatine processes of the maxillae and between the horizontal plates of the palatine bones
Incisive Papilla a small bulge of tissue at the most anterior portion of the hard palate, lingual to the anterior teeth
Palatine Rugae irregularly ridges of tissues surrounding the incisive papilla on the hard palate
Soft Palate posterior nonbony portion of the palate
Uvula of the Palate midline muscular structure that hangs from the posterior margin of the soft palate
Pterygomandibular Fold fold of tissue in the oral cavity that covers the pterygomandibular raphe
Retromolar Pad dense pad of tissue located just distal to the last tooth of the mandible
Base of the Tongue the posterior third or pharygeal portion, that attaches to the floor of the mouth within the oral portion of the throat
Body of the Tongue the anterior two thirds or oral portion that lies within the oral cavity
Apex of the Tongue the tip of the tongue
The Dorsal Surface of the Tongue top surface of the tongue
Sulcus Terminalis the V Shaped groove on the dorsal surface of the tongue that separates the base from the body of the tongue
Foramen Cecum a small pitlike depression located where the sulcus terminalis points backward toward the throat
The Ventral Surface of the Tongue underside of teh tongue
Plica Fimbriata fold with fringelike projections on the ventral surface of the tongue
Lingual Frenum midline fold of tissue between the ventral surface of the tongue and the floor of the mouth
Sublingual Fold a ridge of tissue on each side of the floor of the mouth
Pharynx portion of both the respiratory and digestive tracts that is divided into the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
Laryngopharynx inferior portion of pharynx close to the laryngeal opening
Nasopharynx portion of the pharynx that is superior to the level of the soft palate
Oropharynx portion of the pharynx that is between the soft palate and opening of the larynx
Epiglottis a flap of cartilage that, during swallowing, folds back to cover the entrance to the larynx, preventing food and liquid from entering the trachea and then the lungs
Fauces the junction between the oral region and oropharynx
Mental region region of the head where the major feature is the chin
Mental Protuberance the prominence of the chin
Labiomental Groove a groove that separates the lower lip from the chin
Regions of the Head regions that include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, orbital, nasal, infraorbital, zygomatic, buccal, oral, and mental regions
Regions of the Neck regions that include the anterior and posterior cervical triangles
Thyroid Cartilage the prominence of the larynx known as the Adam's Apple located at the anterior midline
Hyoid Bone bone suspended in the neck that allows the attachment of many muscles
Submandibular Triangle portion of the anterior cervical triangle formed by the mandible and anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle
Carotid Triangle smaller triangular region of the neck superior to the omohyoid muscle and a portion of the anterior cervical triangle
Muscular Triangle smaller triangular region of the neck inferior to the omohyoid muscle and a portion of the anterior cervical triangle
Submental Triangle unpaired midline portion of the anterior cervical triangle created by the right and left anterior bellies of the digastric muscle and the hyoid bone
Occipital Triangle smaller triangular region of the neck superior to the omohyoid muscle and a portion of the posterior cervical triangle
Subclavian Triangle smaller triangular region of the neck inferior to the omohyoid muscle and a portion of the posterior cervical triangle
In what region of the head and neck is the Tragus Located the temporal region
What structure covers the Parietal and Occipital regions the scalp
What structure extends from just inferior to the lateral margin of the eye toward the ear the zygomatic arch
Sublingual Caruncle the small papilla at the anterior end of each sublingual fold
Median Lingual Sulcus midline depression on the dorsal surface of the tongue that corresponds to the deeper median septum
What is the plane that divides the body into right and left parts Saggital Plane
An area closer to the median plane of the body is considered what Medial
Which structures are located in the frontal region Glabella, Supraorbital ridge, and frontal eminence
Which region of the head and neck is the temporomandibular joint located zygomatic
What is the vertical groove found on the midline of the upper lip, extending downward from the nasal septum called Philtrum
What is the space in the oral cavity which is located between the cheeks, lips, and gum called the vestibule
What is the small bulge of tissue at the most anterior portion of the hard palate the incisive papilla
What is the structure that is found on the midline of the dorsal surface of the tongue the median lingual sulcus
what is the small elevation of tissue on the inner portion of the buccal mucosa, opposite the maxillary second molar the parotid papilla
the labial or buccal mucosa meets the alveolar mucosa at the what the mucobuccal fold
What is the structure in the frontal region just under each eyebrow the supraorbital ridge
what is the medial canthus the area where the eyelids meet in the inner corner of the eye
what is the structure that extends from just inferior to the lateral margin of the eye toward the ear the zygomatic arch
the opening from the oral region into the oropharynx is the fauces
the small flap of tissue anterior to the external acoustic meatus is called the tragus
the lips are outlined form the surrounding skin by a transition zone that is called vermillion border
the firm irregular ridges of tissue directly posterior and lateral to the incisive papilla are palatine rugae
the fold of tissue that extends from the junction of hard and soft palates down to the mandible, just behind the most distal mandibular tooth is pterygomandibular raphe
what separates the lower lip from the chin the labiomental groove
into which cervical triangles does the sternocleidomastoid muscle divide the neck anterior and posterior portions
What is anatomical nomeclature the system of names of anatomical structures based on the body's being in anatomical position
What are the four planes that the body can be divided into median/midsaggital plane, sagittal plane, frontal plane, and horizontal/transverse plane
What is ipsilateral structures on the same side of median plane are ipsilateral
What is contralateral structures on different sides of the median plane ex: Right arm/ Left leg
List the structures located in the frontal region supraorbital ridge, glabella, and frontal eminence
List the prominent structures of the temporal region external ear which is composed of the auricle and external acoustic meatus
List the prominent structures of the orbital region orbit, and eyeball
What is the most prominent feature of the nasal region the external nose
list the most prominent structures of the zygomatic region zygomatic arch, and temporomandubular joint
list the most prominent structures of the buccal region cheek, masseter muscle, and angle of the mandible
list the structures of teh oral region lips, oral cavity, palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, pharynx
list the prominent structures of the mental region chin: mental protuberance, labiomental groove
Submandibular triangle the superior portion of each anterior cervical triangle that is demarcated by the digastric muscle (both bellies) and the mandible
Midline submental triangle the anterior bellies of the digastric muscles (right and left) and the hyoid bone
What does the inferior portion of each anterior cervical triangle form when subdivided by the omohyoid muscle a carotid triangle above, and a musclular triangle below
what does each cervical triangle form when subdivided by the omohyoid muscle an occipital triangle above and a subclavian triangle below
Created by: dyoung07